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Glossary for Natural Resource Management

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abiotic: not biotic, non-living (Source: EFI 2002)

acceptable ranges of variability: The characteristics of species, communities and ecosystems vary over time in response to biotic interactions and environmental processes. Critical biotic and environmental conditions and processes must be restored or maintained within acceptable ranges of variability to ensure that our conservation targets do not change so much that they become non-viable over the long term.(Source: TNC 2005)

acid rain: Rainwater that has an acidity content greater than the postulated natural pH of about 5.6. It is formed when sulfur dioxides and nitrogen oxides, as gases or fine particles in the atmosphere, combine with water vapor and precipitate as sulfuric acid or nitric acid in rain, snow, or fog. The dry forms are acidic gases or particulates. (Source: EFI 2002)

acquisition: involves buying or contracting for goods or services to achieve “results,” in most cases through contracts with for-profit, private-sector organizations. Through this mechanism, consulting firms implement much of USAID’s support for biodiversity conservation. (Source: USAID 2005)

adaptive management: emphasizes designing, implementing, and monitoring project activities in a way that helps people learn more about complex ecological and social systems, which in turn can help them make better choices and design more effective interventions later. According to the Biodiversity Support Program: “Adaptive management is fundamentally a framework to experimentally test assumptions, adapt project activities, and learn from project impacts.” (Source: USAID 2005)

afforestation: The act of planting trees on land that has not previously been under forest according to historical records. (Soruce: SMurray) [ALSO] Artificial establishment by planting or seeding of forest on a non-forest area (e.g., agricultural or other land); Artificial establishment of forest lands which previously did not carry forest within living memory; The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always been absent. Where such establishemnt fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed reafforestation. (Source: EFI 2002)

agroforestry: the practice of growing trees and crops together. Agroforestry systems benefit from the ability of trees to protect soil from erosion and to capture and recycle plant nutrients. (Source: IISD 2005) [ALSO] A wide variety of land-use systems combining tree, crop and/or animals on the same land.  Two characteristics distinguish agroforestry from other land uses: 1) the action involves the deliberate growing of woody perennial on the same unit of land as agricultural crops and/or animals either spatially or sequentially, and  2) there is significant interaction between woody and non-woody components, either ecological or economical.  To be counted as an agroforestry system, at least 15 percent of the system must be trees or woody perennials grown for a specific function (e.g., shade, fuel, fodder, windbreak). (Source: SMurray)

annual fellings: Average annual standing volume of all trees, living or dead, that are felled during the given reference period, including the volume of trees or parts of trees that are removed. (Source: EFI 2002)

assistance mechanisms: include grants and cooperative agreements. These are mainly awarded to non-profit partners, such as the large conservation NGOs that are part of USAID’s Global Conservation Program. Although there are no payback requirements with grants, USAID may set conditions on the design and implementation of activities; require monitoring, evaluation, and other kinds of reporting; and generally require a financial “match” from the grantee. (Source: USAID 2005)

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best practice:

biodiversity/biological diversity : is the variety and variability of life, including the diversity of genes within species, the diversity of species, the diversity of communities and ecosystems, and the diversity of ecological processes. (Source: USAID 2005) [ALSO] The full range of natural variety and variability within and among living organisms, and the ecological and environmental complexes in which they occur. It encompasses multiple levels of organization, including genes, species, communities and ecosystems. (Source: TNC 2005)

bio-indicator/bioindicator: fish and other freshwater organisms from polluted waterways, for example, whose death or unusual behavior may indicate the presence of hazardous pollutants that have escaped other detection methods. (Source: IISD 2005) [ALSO] Organism used to establish the presence of an environmental change through its known reaction to specific environmental phenomena. The change may involve the population of the organism, its growth, mortality, reproduction rate, structure, phenology, chemical composition or other parameter. (Source: EFI 2002)

biocultural reserves: term coined by Daniel Janzen to describe national parks and protected areas that fully involve local people in the management and education activities conducted within them. (Source: IISD 2005)


biotechnology: a wide range of techniques used to manipulate living organisms to develop or accentuate characteristics that human beings desire. Genetic engineering, in which the hereditary material of a plant or an animal modified at the molecular level, is one contemporary form of biotechnology with many applications in agriculture. (Source: IISD 2005)

boreal forest: one of three main forest zones in the world; it is located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of confifers.; Open coniferous forest growing on swampy ground that is commonly covered with lichen. It is the characteristic vegetation of the subpolar region spanning northern Eurasis, between the colder tundra zone to the north and the warmer temperate zone to the south. (Source: EFI 2002)

broadleaved: All trees classified botanically as angiospermae. They are somethimes referred to as "hardwoods". (Source: EFI 2002)

buffer zone: An area adjacent to a protected area, on which land use is partially restricted to give an added layer of protection to the protected area itself while providing valued benefits to neighbouring rural communities; A strip of land where disturbances are not allowed, or are closely monitored, to preserve aesthetic and other qualities adjacent to roads, trails, waterways, and recreation sites. (Source: EFI 2002)


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carbon balance: Difference beteeen carbon flow into and out of component/reservoir (measure Mg C/ha/year). (Source: EFI 2002)

carbon cycle: All carbon reservoirs and exchanges of carbon from reservoir to reservoir by various chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. Usually thought of as a series of the four main reservoirs, regions of the Earth in which carbon behaves in a systematic manner, are the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere (ususally includes freshwater systems), oceans, and sediments (includes fossil fuels). Each of these global reservoirs may be subdivided into smaller pools, ranging in size from individual communities or ecosystems to the total of all living organisms (biota). (Source: EFI 2002)

carbon flow: Flux of carbon from one component into another (measure Mg C/ha/year). (Source: EFI 2002)

carbon flux: The rate of exchange of carbon between pools (i.e., reservoirs). (Source: EFI 2002)

carbon sequestration: The uptake and storage of carbon. Trees and plants, for example, absorb carbon dioxide, release the oxygen and store the carbon. Fossil fuels were at one time biomass and continue to store the carbon until burned. (Source: EFI 2002)

carbon sink: Any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere.; Component, or whole reservoir, into which C flow is greater that out of it (measure Mg C/ha/year), balance positive; Carbon reservoirs and conditions that take-in and store more carbon (i.e., carbon sequestration) than they release. Carbon sinks can serve to partially offset greenhouse gas emissions. Forests and oceans are large carbon sinks. (Source: EFI 2002)

carbon source: Any process, activity or mechanism which releases a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas into the atmosphere; Component, or whole reservoir, into which C flow is smaller than out of it (measure Mg C/ha/year), balance negative. (Source: EFI 2002)

carrying capacity: the number of cattle or other livestock a pasture or range can support without suffering degradation or losing its productivity. (Source: IISD 2005) [ALSO] Capacity of an ecosystem to support healthy organisms while maintaining its productivity, adaptability and capability of renewal; The maximum number of animals of one or more species that can be supported by a particular habitat or area through the most unfavourable period of the year; Maximum averargee number of biomass or organisms that can be sustained in a habitat over the long term. Usually refers to a particular species, but can be applied to more than one; The amount of use an area can sustain - for recreation, for wildlife, etc. without deteriorating in its quality and become unsustainable. (Source: EFI 2002)

catchment: (see watershed)

charismatic species: attractive, appealing, cute, unique, or otherwise attention-getting species; if threatened or endangered may serve as “flagship” species. Examples include cheetah, lion, orangutan, gorilla, sea turtles, and whales. (Source: USAID 2005)

clearcut: Entire growing stock is removed in a single felling; Clearcut is an area of forest that has become completely cleared of all trees other than small seedlings and occasional saplings, resulting in a change of "forest conditions" i.e., shade, moisture, etc. The scale varies between countries. (Source: EFI 2002)

climate models: elaborate computer programs that simulate the interplay of the sun's energy with the Earth's land surface, oceans and atmosphere. By changing equations in the program that represents factors such as the mix of gases in the atmosphere or the snow and ice on the Earth's surface, scientists can investigate how the Earth's climate (rainfall and temperature patterns) might change over time in response to human activities. (Source: IISD 2005)

cloud forest: Vegetation formation where trees occur in single or multiple stories with crowns interlocking, which, in conjunction with the undergrowth, cover a high proportion (>40%) of the ground and consequently do not have a continuous dense grass layer at the ground level. (Source: EFI 2002)

coastal zone: The coastal zone includes both the area of land subject to marine influences and the area of the sea subject to land influences, and includes three main components: the sea, the beach, and the land behind the beach. The sea, or offshore area, extends from the low water mark seaward, covering the shallow marine habitats of the coast such as seagrasses and coral reefs among others. The beach zone extends from the low water mark to the seaward edge of the coastal vegetation. In some cases the base of a cliff or a dune may mark the end of this highly changeable environment. The last component of the coastal zone is the adjoining coastal land. This zone extends landward for some distance from the end of the beach, defined variably according to each country. (Source: SMurray)

code (as it pretains to the USAID coding/reporting):

cogeneration: a facility in which two or more forms of energy are generated simultaneously or interchangeably. Commonly, a cogeneration facility produces steam for an industrial or commercial process and uses some of the steam to turn a turbine that generates electricity. Another type of cogeneration arrangement combines several energy sources in a single facility to provide a mix of energy forms (heat, electricity, etc.) in varying proportions to the needs of the energy users. (Source: IISD 2005)

communication for social change: (CFSC) is a process of public and private dialogue through which people themselves define who they are, what they need and how to get what they need in order to improve their own lives. It utilizes dialogue that leads to collective problem identification, decision making and community-based implementation of solutions to development issues. (Source: CFSC 2005)

community conserved area: areas of natural or semi-natural habitat that have been conserved by local communities for a variety of ecological and cultural reasons. They may or may not be legally recognized by national governments, designated for management and protection. Thousands of small sites are conserved as village forests and pastures, sacred groves, and restricted hunting or fishing areas by communities worldwide. (Source: USAID 2005)

coniferous: All trees classified botanically as gymnospermae. They are sometimes referred to as "softwoods". (Source: EFI 2002)

consensus decision-making: a process of achieving general agreement where all parties accept decisions made through an agreed upon process. (Source: IISD 2005)

conservation: The definition accepted in 1969 by the United Nations and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature is “the rational use of the environment to achieve the highest quality of living for mankind.” Conservation involves an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection that includes as a primary focus maintaining the health of the natural world including its forests, fisheries, habitats, and biological diversity. A secondary definition of conservation relates to the efficient use and decreased consumption of resources (e.g., water, energy, minerals, etc.) while providing the same level of service. (Source: SMurray from website {})

conservation biology:

conservation concession: a relatively new mechanism that involves a conservation organization acting as a resource extraction company by bidding on a development concession and, if successful, choosing not to exercise its resource extraction rights. (Source: USAID 2005)

conservation finance:

conservation targets: Specific components of biodiversity identified by The Nature Conservancy and used to design ecoregional portfolios and develop and prioritize conservation strategies. Currently, the Conservancy’s conservation targets consist of ecosystems, natural communities and species. (Source: TNC 2005)

conservation trust fund: used to provide more sustained, long-term funding of conservation, usually of three main types: endowments, in which the principal is invested and income generated by that investment is used to finance activities, preserving the principal itself as a permanent asset; sinking funds, in which the principal and any investment income over a set period of time—generally a relatively long time is used to finance activities; and revolving funds, in which new funding is received on a regular basis (such as from grants, taxes, user fees, etc.) to replenish, or even increase, the original principal. (Source: USAID 2005)

conserve: For the Nature Conservancy’s purposes, a conservation area can be deemed to be conserved or functional when its biodiversity health score has achieved a rank of “good” or “very good” and its threat status is “low” or “medium.” (Source: TNC 2005)

cooperative agreement: an agreement between USAID and implementing partners, awarded to provide funds or other resources. This type of agreement dictates “substantial involvement” between the parties during the performance of the proposed activity. “Substantial involvement” is statutorily limited and does not allow the Agency to exercise a high level of control over the cooperating organization. (Source: USAID 2005)

coppice/coppice with standards: Forest composed of stool-shoots or root suckers with or without scattered trees (standards), which may be seedling or coppice origin. (Source: EFI 2002)

corridor/ecological corridor: Corridors are linear landscape elements that often differ from what is on either side, and may function as habitat, dispersal/movement conduits, or barriers for various organisms and other non-living landscape elements (e.g., nutrients, water, etc.). Three different types of structural corridors exist: (1) line corridors, in which the width of the corridor is too narrow to allow for interior environmental conditions to develop; (2) strip corridors, in which the width of the corridor is wide enough to allow for interior conditions to develop; and (3) stream corridors, which are a special category. (Source: SMurray)

criterion: A distinguishing characteristic of a goal by which it can be judged (e.g., criteria for sustainable forest development include protection of biodiversity and maintaining the productive capacity of forest ecosystems). (Source: EFI 2002)

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debt-for-nature swap: a third party (often an NGO or bilateral donor) will arrange to purchase a portion of a country’s public debt at a discount. The third party then “forgives” the debt in exchange for a negotiated level of investments in conservation on the part of the country’s government. (Source: USAID 2005)

decision-making: choosing one action over other possible alternative actions. (Source: IISD 2005)

deforestation: Change of land cover with depletion of tree crown cover to less than 10 percent. Changes within the forest class (e.g., from closed to open forest) which negatively affect the stand or site, and in particular, lower the production capacity, are termed forest degradation. (Source: EFI 2002)

development: a process of economic and social transformation that defies simple definition. Though often viewed as a strictly economic process involving growth and diversification of a country's economy, development is a qualitative concept that entails complex social, cutural and environmental changes. There are many models of what "development" should look like and many different standards of what constitutes "success". (Source: IISD 2005)

development alliance: an agreement between two or more parties to jointly define a development problem and jointly contribute to its solution. (Source: USAID 2005)

disincentives: mechanisms (e.g. regulations, fees, taxes, policies, or programs) which act as deterrents and discourage, or prevent, decisions, actions, or behaviors which are targeted and undesirable. (Source: IISD 2005). [Reviewer's note] "a disincentive can also discourage a positive/desirable action (PSmith, USAID)."

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economic growth: the change over a period of time in the value (monetary and non-monetary) of goods and services and the ability and capacity to produce goods and services. It is economic growth which generates the wealth necessary to provide social services, health care, and education. It is the basis for ongoing job creation. However, sustainable development requires that there be a change in the nature of economic growth, to ensure that goods and services are produced by environmentally sound and economically sustainable processes. This will require efficient use of resources, value-added processing, sustained yield management of renewable resources, and the consideration and accounting of all externalities and side-effects involved in the extraction, processing, production, distribution, consumption and disposal of those goods. (Source: IISD 2005)

economicallysSustainable: the characteristic of prolonged, careful, efficient and prudent (wise and judicious) use of resources (natural, fiscal, human), products, facilities, and services. It is based on thorough knowledge and involves operating with little waste and accounting for all costs and benefits, including those which are not marketable and can result in savings. (Source: IISD 2005)

ecoregion: an ecological region, which as defined by WWF is "a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities,” or ecosystems. Conservation at the ecoregional scale could involve, for example, creating a network of reserves representative of the ecosystems of the region. Or, conserving the genetic diversity found within a given species might require that populations of that species scattered at specific sites across an ecological region be maintained. (Source: USAID 2005) [ALSO] An ecoregion is a large unit of land and water typically defined by climate, geology, topography and associations of plants and animals. Ecoregions, not political boundaries, provide a framework for capturing ecological and genetic variation in biodiversity across a full range of environmental gradients. (Source: TNC 2005) [ALSO] Relatively large geographic areas of land and water delineated by climate, vegetation, geology and other ecological and environmental patterns. (Source: TNC 2005) [ALSO] A relatively large unit of land or water that contains a distinct assemblage of natural communities sharing a majority of species, dynamics and environmental conditions (Source: DRobinson citing Dinerstein 2002).

ecoregional portfolio: An ecoregional portfolio, the end product of ecoregional planning, is a selected set of places that represents the full distribution and diversity of native species, natural communities and ecosystems in an ecoregion. If managed appropriately, a portfolio will ensure the long-term survival of all native life and natural communities, not just threatened species and communities. (Source: TNC 2005)

ecosystem: a community of plant and animal species that interact together along with their physical and chemical environment. (Source: IISD 2005) [ALSO] A community of organisms and their physiological environment interacting as an ecological unit (Source: DRobinson citing Lincoln et al. 1982). [ALSO] A dynamic system of interactions between all of the species inhabiting an area and the non-living, physical environment. Ecosystems vary spatially and change with time, and no ecosystem is closed with respect to exchanges of organisms, matter, and energy. Priority areas or sites for conservation exist within ecosystems. (Source: USAID 2005). [ALSO] An ecosystem is a group of interconnected natural communities on land or in water that are linked together by ecological processes. Primary emphasis in portfolio design will be placed on conserving the highest quality examples of ecosystems and second, on viable populations of native species not captured within these ecosystems. Portfolio design and implementation is a dynamic and iterative process that will be periodically updated and refined. (Source: TNC 2005). [ALSO] Dynamic assemblages of native plant and/or animal communities that 1) occur together on the landscape or in the water; and 2) are tied together by similar ecological processes (e.g., fire, hydrology), underlying environmental features (e.g., soils, geology) or environmental gradients (e.g., elevation). (Source: TNC 2005)

ecosystem changes: see scientific facts on ecosystem change:

ecosystem management: is concerned with how to manage the complex interaction of ecological and social systems in order to provide sustainable values to societies, even when scientists and managers do not know enough to accurately predict the behavior of those systems. (Source: USAID 2005)

ecosystem services/environmental services: the services provided by ecosystems and ecological processes, including regulation of water flows and maintenance of water quality; the formation of soil, prevention of soil erosion, and nutrient cycling that maintains soil fertility; degradation of wastes and pollution; pest and pathogen control; pollination; and climate regulation through carbon storage and sequestration. (Source: USAID 2005) [ALSO] Aa natural processes provide services that allow humans and all species to survive on the earth: to breathe, drink and eat. These processes include water cycles (quantity and quality of water), soil fertility replenishment, conservation of biodiversity, and air quality. Ecosystem/environmental services data and information management: and the NOAA site on climate change: (Source: DRobinson) [ALSO] Services provided by natural processes that allow humans and all species to survive on the earth: to breathe, drink and eat. These processes include hydrologic cycles (quantity and quality of water), soil fertility replenishment, conservation of biodiversity, and air quality, among others. (Source: SMurray)

ecotourism: responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people. According to the Ecotourism Society ecotourism is: “Purposeful travel to natural areas to understand the culture and natural history of the environment, taking care not to alter the integrity of the ecosystem while producing economic opportunities that make the conservation of natural resources beneficial to local people.” (Source: USAID 2005)

element of biodiversity: an aspect or component of biodiversity, such as an ecosystem, ecological community, species, genetic variation within a species, or ecological process. (Source: USAID 2005)

endemic species: species found only in a relatively small geographic area and nowhere else, such as Galapagos finches. (Source: USAID 2005)

endangered species: Species classified by an objective process (e.g., national "Red Book") as being in The World Conservation Union (IUCN) categories "critically endangered" and "endangered". A species is considered to be critically endanged when it is facing an extremely high rish of extinction in the wild in the immediate future. It is considered "endangered" when it is not critically endangered but is still facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future. (Source: EFI 2002)

endemic species: Species is endemic when found only in a certain strictly limited geographical region, i.e., restricted to a specified region or locality. (Source: EFI 2002)

energy efficiency: the percentage of total energy input that does useful work and is not lost or converted to low temperature, usually useless, heat. (Source: IISD 2005)

environment: Environment where human beings live. Everything that affects an organism during its lifetime and includes soil, rock, water, air, along with living organisms, as well as human construction (the built environment). (Source: IISD 2005)

environmental accounting: modifying a country’s national income accounting system, from which GDP and GNP are calculated, to incorporate the monetary value of natural resources and environmental services used and depleted. (Source: USAID 2005)

environmental assessment (EA): an analysis to determine whether a proposed action will have a harmful effect on the environment; an environmental impact assessment. (Source: USAID 2005)

environmental ethic:

environmental impact: the net change (positive or negative) in human health and the condition of the environment that results from human actions, activities, or developments. (Source: IISD 2005)

environmental impact assessment (EIA): a process which predicts the magnitude and importance of effects of a proposed activity on the environment, and on human health, and establishes conditions under which the activity may be undertaken. The results of the process may prevent the activity from proceeding if the potential effects are unacceptable. (Source: IISD 2005) [ALSO] An analysis to determine whether a proposed action will have a harmful impact on the environment, often comparing the impact of this proposed action with that of other alternatives and options. (Source: USAID 2005)

environmental services (ES): see ecosystem services

environmentally sound: the maintenance of a healthy environment and the protection of life-sustaining ecological processes. It is based on thorough knowledge and requires or will result in products, manufacturing processes, developments, etc. which are in harmony with essential ecological processes and human health. (Source: IISD 2005)

equitable: dealing justly and fairly with all those concerned. (Source: IISD 2005)

exotic species: see "introduced species" and "non-indigenous species"

extractive reserves: areas of forest designated by the government of Brazil as protected reserves where rubber tappers can practice their livelihood based on gathering natural forest products without the threat of deforestation by farmers or ranchers. The first such reserves were designated in the western Amazon in the mid-1980s after years of organizing by rubber tappers in the region and support from international environmental groups. (Source: IISD 2005)

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flagship species: species, usually charismatic ones, that can serve as a symbol of nature and conservation, and be used as a logo or otherwise in fundraising and education by conservation organizations, such as the panda, the flagship species used as WWF’s logo. (Source: USAID 2005)

forest: Land with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10 percent and area of more than 0.5 ha. (Source: EFI 2002 citing FAO 2000 definition). [ALSO] A land area with a minimum 10% tree crown coverage (or equivalent stocking level), or formerly having such tree cover and that is being naturally or artificially regenerated or that is being afforested. (Source: EFI 2002 citing IUFRO definition)

forest certification: programs to audit and certify to consumers that wood and other forest products are produced in forests managed in environmentally and socially responsible or sustainable ways. (Source: USAID 2005)

forest fire:

forest health:

forest management unit (FMU): A parcel of forest land that is harvested, regenerated, and managed as a single entity. Its area, shape, and boundaries are determined by operational considerations, such as forest cover type, forest age, density of trees, timber merchantability, soil productivity, and presence of natural boundaries, such as ridge tops, streams, and roads. (Source: SMurray)

fragmentation of forests: Breaking up (by agriculture, streets, clear felling, streams, settlements) of the natural forest canopy; Isolation of froest area, forest island theory = forest areas fragmented among other land use categories (agricultural land, urban area etc.), or; fragmentation inside the forest area, due to the forest roads, different forest use practices, fencing etc. (Source: EFI 2002)

frontier forests: Large, relatively intact forest ecosystems. A frontier forest must neet the following criteria: it is primarily forested, it is large enough to support viable populations of all species associated wiht that forest type even in the face of natural disasters of a magnititue to occur one in a century, its strucutre and composition are determined mainly by natural events, and it remains relatively unmanaged by humans, although limited human distrubance by traditional activies is acceptable, in forest where patches of trees of different ages occur natually, the landscape shows this type of heterogeneity, it is home to most, if not all, other plants and animals that typically live in this forest. (Source: EFI 2002)

full-cost accounting: the process of accounting for and including all environmental, economic, and social costs (and benefits) of a particular action, activity, policy or development in the decision-making and/or approval process and pricing. (Source: IISD 2005)

functional conservation area: Functional conservation areas conserve the focal species, natural communities, ecosystems and the ecological processes necessary to sustain them over the long term. Functional conservation areas range along a continuum of complexity and scale, from landscapes that seek to conserve a large number of conservation targets at multiple spatial scales, to sites that seek to conserve a small number of conservation targets. To conserve wide-ranging and migratory species, functional conservation areas within and across portfolios should be designed as integrated networks. (Source: TNC 2005). [ALSO] The geographic area needed to maintain the conservation targets and supporting ecological processes within acceptable ranges of variability over the long term. Functional landscapes are often intended to conserve all biodiversity in an area; are typically large (i.e., > 20,000 acres); and usually include both aquatic and terrestrial targets. (Source: TNC 2005)

functional landscapes: Functional landscapes represent particularly effective and efficient geographical units for conserving biodiversity within ecoregions. Large, complex, multi-scale and relatively intact, functional landscapes provide an ecological stage on which biodiversity can respond to human or natural disturbances. (Source: TNC 2005)

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genes: the smallest elements of biological diversity. They combine in unique patterns to form individuals and populations of each species. (Source: USAID 2005)

genetic and ecological variation: Genetic variation, or genetic diversity, is a measure of the differences in the genetic makeup of individuals, populations or species. Ecological variation is a measure of differences in the collective response of a species, community type or ecosystem to different environmental conditions. (Source: TNC 2005)

geographic information system (GIS):

global positioning system (GPS):

global information system:

grants: gifts of funds or other resources. (Source: USAID 2005)

greenhouse effect: the name given to the phenomenon by which transparent gasses of the atmosphere allow sunlight to warm the Earth's surface, and then prevent that warmth from escaping back into space. Like the inside of a greenhouse on a sunny winter day, the Earth is warmer because of this effect than it would be if the atmosphere did not hold heat. Carbon dioxide and other gasses responsible for this heat-trapping effect constitute less than 1% of the atmosphere's volume. (Source: IISD 2005)

gross domestic product (GDP): the statistical measure of the total economic value of all the goods and services produced by an economy in a given year. The size and rate of growth of GDP are often taken as indicators of the level of development acheived by a society. GDP also contains many items such as spending to clean up environmental damage, treat drug addicts, keep criminals in jail, etc., that reflects social difficulties rather than social well-being. GDP excludes important items such as the unpaid costs of the environmental damage and the lost value of depleted natural resources. (Source: IISD 2005)

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habitat: the place or type of ecosystem in which a plant or animal species is commonly found. (Source: IISD 2005)

habitat type [fresh water]: Arctic freshwaters; Temperate large rivers; Temperate headwaters; Temperate coastal freshwaters; Temperate large lakes; Desert/xeric small freshwaters; Desert/xeric large rivers; Oceanic freshwaters; Tropical large rivers; Tropical headwaters; Tropical coastal freshwaters; Tropical large lakes; Small lakes; Large river deltas. (Source: TNC 2005)

habitat type [marine]: Polar bays & estuaries; Temperate (warm and cold) bays & estuaries; Tropical bays & estuaries; Epipelagic (ocean surface); Mesopelagic (mid-depth oceans); Bathypelagic (deep oceans); Polar shelves; Temperate (warm and cold) shelves; Tropical shelves; Slope (sea bottom); Abyssal (deep sea bottom). (Source: TNC 2005)

habitat type [terrestrial]: Tropical moist broadleaf forests; Tropical dry broadleaf forests; Tropical coniferous forests; Temperate broadleaf & mixed forests; Temperate coniferous forests; Boreal forests/taiga; Tundra; Temperate grasslands, savannas & shrublands; Tropical grasslands, savannas & shrublands; Flooded grasslands & savannas; Montane grasslands & shrublands; Deserts & xeric shrublands; Mediterranean forests, woodlands & scrub. (Source: TNC 2005)

hazardous waste: a class of waste materials that poses immediate or long-term risks to human health or the environment and requires special handling for detoxification or safe disposal. Both industrial and household wastes include hazardous materials. (Source: IISD 2005)

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in situ conservation: conservation of biodiversity in place, in natural settings. (Source: USAID 2005)

incentive: any benefit (economic, regulatory, policy, etc.) which influences or encourages a desired action or behavior. (Source: IISD 2005)

indicators: variables that are influenced by project interventions or management activities and that can be monitored to provide evidence of progress or success. (Source: USAID 2005) [ALSO] A quantitative measure of an effect, which does not in itself signify whether the change is good or bad; A quantitative measure of change, used to determine whether a criterion has been fulfilled. (Source: EFI 2002)

indicator species: a plant or animal species whose prescence, abundance, and health reveal the general condition of its habitat. (Source: IISD 2005) [ALSO] Species that are particularly sensitive to ecological changes, such as pollution or the loss of natural ecological disturbances such as fire, whose presence indicates the overall integrity, resilience, or “health” of a community, landscape, or ecosystem (e.g., some lichens). (Source: USAID 2005)

indefinite quantity contract (IQC): a contracting mechanism for both short- and long-term technical assistance within a specific area of expertise (e.g., biodiversity and forestry, energy, environmental education), developed to be simpler and faster than normal contracts. (Source: USAID 2005)

indigenous and traditional peoples: groups of people who have resided in a region for generations, and can be distinguished from the rest of the national community based on social, cultural, and economic conditions. Indigenous areas are those areas traditionally inhabited by these peoples. Indigenous and traditional peoples have unique cultures that may be closely integrated with the local natural environment. These communities typically have a strong stake in the natural resources around them due to their dependence on these resources to sustain their livelihoods and cultures. These groups are often marginalized. (Source: USAID 2005)

indigenous species: see native species

initial environmental examination (IEE): a brief statement of factual basis for a threshold decision as to whether an EA or an EIS will be required. (Source: USAID 2005)

innovation: the use of a new idea, material, or technology to change an activity, development, good, or service or the way goods and services are produced, distributed, or disposed of. (Source: IISD 2005)

interagency agreement (IAA): an agreement with other U.S. government agencies to share staff, expertise, and collaborate on joint programs. (Source: USAID 2005)

integrated (decision-making, planning) management: a systematic process that ensures all stakeholders, affected disciplines, and sectors have an opportunity to be involved and examines all economic, environmental, and social costs and benefits in order to determine appropriate options, which are then brought together in a plan, or as a framework for making decisions. (Source: IISD 2005)

introduced species/exotic species/non-indigenous species: Species occurring outside their natural biotope; Tree species occurring outside their natural vegetation zone, area or region. Includes hybrids. (Source: EFI 2002)

invasive species: a species, often introduced inadvertently or deliberately by human activities from another continent or ecosystem, which can crowd out native species and take over habitats, thereby threatening native biodiversity. (Source: USAID 2005)

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keystone species: a species that plays a major ecological role in determining the composition and structure of an ecological community; if a keystone species disappears, the whole community will change. The African elephant is one example of a keystone species. (Source: USAID 2005) [ALSO] A species that plays an important ecological role in determining the overall structure and dynamic relationships within a biotic community. A keystone species presence is essential to the integrity and stability of a particular ecosystem. (Source: EFI 2002)

knowledge management (KM):

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landscape: an aggregate of landforms, together with its biological communities, often comprised of a mosaic of varying land uses. (Source: DRobinson). [ALSO] A heterogeneous land area composed of a cluster of interacting ecosystems that is repeated in similar form throughout. The concept differs from the traditional ecosystem concept in focusing on groups of ecosystems and the interactions among them. Although rarely less than a few kilometers in scale, landscape is not necessarily defined by its size; rather, it is defined by the interacting processes relevant to the phenomenon under consideration (at any scale) (see “ecoregion” – these terms are often interchangeable). (Source: SMurray)

landscape ecology: The study of the distribution patterns of communities and ecosystmes, the ecological processes that affect those patterns and changes in pattern and process over time. (Source: EFI 2002)

loans: the temporary use of funds or resources with interest charges levied for their use. (Source: USAID 2005)

local government: the level of government (rural, city, town, country) that is closest to the average citizen. (Source: IISD 2005)

low-input agriculture: a system of farming methods that minimize reliance on expensive inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, and other purchased materials by using these "inputs" as efficiently as possible, or by replacing them with inexpensive organic fertilizers, biological pest controls, and ecological knowledge. Organic farming is one type of low-input agriculture. (Source: IISD 2005)

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major habitat types: Major habitat types (see habitat) are groupings of ecoregions that reflect global-scale patterns of how biodiversity is organized and distributed. Major habitat types share similar environmental conditions, habitat structure, communities and patterns of biological complexity. There are more than 30 major habitat types on Earth, spanning terrestrial, marine and freshwater categories. (Source: IISD 2005)

managed forest/production forest/productive forest: Forested areas which are treated by using specific silvicultural practices. The stands are treated repeatedly and sometimes in order to achieve multipurpose goals. (Source: EFI 2002)

management: the effective and efficient integration and coordination of resources (natural, financial, human) in order to acheive desired goals, objectives and mandates. The style, tenets, criteria, and techniques used will define the management philosophy. (Source: IISD 2005)

marine protected area: an area of sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biodiversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means. MPAs range from small, locally managed and enforced fisheries or ecological reserves (no-take reserves) to larger national marine parks that are zoned for multiple use. (Source: USAID 2005)

millenium ecosystem assessment (MEA):

multiple use: Land and resource management for more than one purpose, such as wood production, wildlife, recreation, forage, aesthetics, water supply, or clean air. (Source: SMurray) [ALSO: multiple use forestry] The planned utlization of foreset resources in such a way that the various needs of people are satisfied on a sustainable basis and that the total of material and non-materials benefits provided by the forests for socieity is as large as possible; Management of foresest to obtain multiple products and benefits (cf. production forest, protection forest and conservation foreste). Muliple use forestry takes an integrated approach toward the different categories of forests and encompasses the scientific, cultural, recreational, historical and amenity values of forest resources. (Source: EFI 2002)

market incentives: incentives which are directed at changing behavior through the market economy. They can have a direct effect on the price or availability of a particular resource, good, or service (also see "incentive"). (Source: IISD 2005)

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national conservation strategies: plans that highlight country-level environmental priorities and opportunities for sustainable management of natural resources, following the example of the World Conservation Strategy published by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) in 1980. Though governments may support preparation for the strategies, they are not bound to follow IUCN's recommendations. (Source: IISD 2005)

native species/indigenous species/autochthonous: Species or genotypes which have evolved in the same area, region or biotope and are adapted to the specific predominant ecological conditions at the time of establishment. (Source: EFI 2002)

natural communities: Assemblages of species that re-occur under similar habitat conditions and environmental regimes. (Source: TNC 2005)

natural forest: A forest which has evolved as a sequence of natural succession but still showing anthropogenic influences. Also, forests that have developed from unmanaged pastures or from fallow land; Natural forests are composed of indigenous trees, not planted by man. Or in other words forest excluding plantations. Natural forests are further classified using the following criteria: forest fomation (or type) closed/open, degree of human disturbance or modification, species composition. (Source: EFI 2002)

natural resource management (NRM): is defined as "enhancing natural assets across generations" or “enhancing natural assets across generations for the long term benefit o f humans and their environment.” Natural resources are the building blocks of our economy, livelihoods and indeed our lives. Valuable resources such as oil, gas, minerals and timber are managed intensively by humans but we also manage minerals, plants and animals directly and indirectly through production, consumption and distribution of goods and services. We manage natural resources at large scales (e.g., Three Rivers dam) and micro-scales (genetic resources in biotech). While commodity production involves extraction and separation of natural resources, in nature resources are integrated into complex compositions (e.g., soils, bodies of water) and interdependent (e.g., animals, plants, water and air). Natural resource managers can apply ingenuity and science but NRM is embedded in economics, policy, governance and other social processes. (Source: DRobinson).

network: A system of interconnected conservation areas that commonly transcend ecoregional boundaries to conserve wide-ranging and migratory species. (Source: TNC 2005)

newly industrialized countries: a category including several Southeast Asian nations (South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Malaysia) that have achieved high rates of economic growth in recent years by attracting manufacturing and assembly plants for the automotive, electronics, and other industries. These industries have benefitted from relatively educated workers, low wage levels, various sorts of government incentives, and generally lax environmental regulations. (Source: IISD 2005)

non-material values: the benefits other than direct material uses or ecosystem services that people derive from the natural world and its resources, including spiritual, esthetic, educational, recreational, historical, and scientific benefits. (Source: USAID 2005)

non-point source pollution:

non-wood products/non-timber wood products (NTFP): Consist of goods, services, and functions (berries, hunting, non-commodity benefits etc.). Goods are the physical assets produced either on purpose or fortuitously in combination with the wood production, e.g., cubic metres clean water, number of deer harvested, etc. Rather well quantified and transformed into an economic market value. Services are less tangible attributes that may be in demand, e.g., recreation opportunities, protection functions, wildlife habitats, etc. Functions are the ability of a forest area to provide goods and services. (Source: EFI 2002)

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old-growth forest: Ecosystem distinguished by old trees showing structual features characteristic of later stages of stand and successional development. These differ from earlier stages in structure, composition and function. (Source: EFI 2002)

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participation: the involvement of stakeholders in planning, priority-setting, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of activities and programs. (Source: USAID 2005)

partnership: a relationship that exists between parties having specified and joint rights and responsibilities. (Source: IISD 20005)


plantation: Forests established through the planting or sowing of seed by humans. Plantaion forests have the function to produce special forest products or they have been estahblished for protective purposed (e.g., in watershed). Artificial regeneration, geometic plant spacing, chosen tree species are typical characteristics of these stands. They can be located on high productive sites which occur naturally or have been artifically improved. Intensive management techniques and protection measures help to achieve high quantity and/or qualigy in very short periods of time; Forest stand established by planting or/and seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestaion. They are either of introduced species (all planted stands), or intensively managed stands of indigenous species which meet all the following criteria - one or two species at plantaqtion, even age class, regular spacing. (Source: EFI 2002)


poaching/illegal harvesting/humting:

pollution: an undesirable contaminate (gas, liquid, noise, solid) which has been released into, and is now a part of, the environment. (Source: IISD 2005). [also see related terms: "non-point source pollution"; "zero-discharge technology"; "hazardous waste"] [ALSO] A change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of the air, water, or soil that can affect the health, survival, or activities of humans in an unwanted way. Some expand the term to include harmful effects on all form of life; Generally, the presence of matter or energy whose nature, location or quantity produces undesired environmental effects, ususally a human-made or human-induced alternation of the physical, biolgoica, or radiological integrity of water, air, or soil. (Source: EFI 2002)

primary forest/primeval forest: Areas of ususally old forest with natural forest structure and dynamics, lacking anthropogenic influnces from the past to the present; Relatively intact natural forest which has remained essentially unmodified by human activity for the past 60-80 years. (Source: EFI 2002)

principles: primary guidelines for decision-making, policy, or behavior, such as principles of sustainable development, including: integration of environmental and economic decisions, stewardship, shared responsibility, prevention, conservation, recycling, enhancement, rehabilitation and reclamation, scientific and technological innovation, inter-generational equity, and global responsibility. (Source: IISD 2005)

private protected area: refers to an area that is managed for biodiversity conservation objectives; protected with or without formal government recognition; and owned or otherwise secured by individuals, communities, corporations or NGOs. Private conservation areas, like publicly protected areas, vary greatly in terms of management objectives, allowable activities, and level of protection. These may include formally declared private areas, lands subject to conservation easements, game ranches, mixed commercial operations based on sustainable use, and land trusts. (Source: USAID 2005)

privatization: converting land or resources formerly under public or communal tenure into private property or private concession or lease. (Source: USAID 2005)

protected areas: areas managed to maintain certain elements of biodiversity and the values they provide. (Source: USAID 2005)

protected forest: Forest areas legally protected for maintaining the high biodiversity values. Classified often according to The World Conservation Union (IUCN) categories; Forest areas that comply to the following general principles - existence of legal basis, long term commitment, and explicit designation as protected or protective forest area. (Source: EFI 2002)

protection forest: Forest area with restricted management/or without management for protection against arlences, natural disturbances, erosion, water flow, or for maintaining the catchment areas, watershed management, landscape areas, cultural heritage; The function of forest/other wooded land in providing protection of soil against erosion by water or wind, prevention of desertification, the reduction of risk or avalances and rock or mud slides, and in conserving, protection and regulting the quantity and quality of water supply, including the prevention of flooding. (Source: EFI 2002)

portfolio: The suite of conservation areas within an ecoregion selected to represent and conserve the conservation targets and their genetic and ecological variation. (Source: TNC 2005)

proper resource pricing: the pricing of natural resources at levels which reflect their combined economic and environmental values. (Source: IISD 2005)

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reduced impact logging/harvesting (RIL):

reforestation: The act of planting trees on deforested or degraded land previously under forest. (Source: SMurry) [ALSO] Artificial (planting, seeding) or natural re-establishment of forest after harvesting/cutting on previously forest or other wooded land; Artificial establishment of forest on lands which arried forest before. (Source: EFI 2002)

relic species:

remote sensing:

rents (resource): the surplus value that is generated from the sale of a resource, above and beyond the payments needed to satisfy the normal profit needs of the industry and the wage demands of those who work in the industry. (Source: IISD 2005)

(proper) resource pricing: the pricing of natural resources at levels which reflect their combined economic and environmental values. (Source: IISD 2005)

right of access (public): General right of access to all natural areas, all forest areas, fields and meadows during non-crop season, undeveloped sea and lake shores and riverbanks as well as to water areas for boating and swimming. Also using water for drinking and household needs, picking berries, mushrooms and flowers which are not protected by law are allowed. Removal of soil material or causing damage to growing trees or crops is prohibited. The right concerns only non-motorized use. The definition varies between countries, depending on the existence of laws of trespass. (Source: EFI 2002)

right-to-know laws: regulations that require the disclosure of information about hazardous materials used, stored, emitted, or disposed of in a community, when requested by local authorities or citizens. (Source: IISD 2005)

rotation (forestry):

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sanitary felling:

selective/selection cut: A tree removal method that involved periodic cutting of selected trees from all merchantable diameter classes. The method is mostly used in an uneven-aged forest. (Source: EFI 2002)

shelterwood method: A tree removal method in which mature trees are removed in a series of cuttings, enabling a new crop to establish under the partial shelter of the old trees from which the seed for regeneration is obtained. The regeneration may also be done artificially. (Source: EFI 2002)

shrubland: An open or closed wooded land of vegetation type where the dominant woody elements are shrubs with 05-5 m height on maturity. (Source: EFI 2002)

site: relatively small and circumscribed areas of natural habitat, whether land or water, and/or the area in which a conservation project works, regardless of size. (Source: USAID 2005)

skidder/skidder trails:


social marketing: the application of models and techniques derived from commercial marketing and from behavioral psychology to promote new behaviors that have positive social values, such as biodiversity conservation. (Source: USAID 2005)

social monitoring: monitoring of social (economic, cultural, demographic, political) variables, including the behaviors of individuals and groups toward the environment and the effects of conservation activities on people’s health and welfare. (Source: USAID 2005)

species: an identifiable group of (potentially) interbreeding organisms that is able to produce viable offspring. (Source: USAID 2005)

stakeholders: individuals, groups, or businesses that are interested, involved, or affected by a particular action or activity. (Source: IISD 2005). [ALSO] Any person, group, or organization with an interest in the use and management of some aspect of biodiversity in a given place, or which affects or is affected by a particular conservation action, ranging from local users, to government agencies, NGOs, and the private sector, and including local, national, and international levels. (Source: USAID 2005)

standards (environmental, performance): the levels of expected performance used as criteria against which actual performance is evaluated and judged. Often take the form of a regulation (see also "criteria"). (Source: IISD 2005)

subsidies: a general term for various forms of assistance, financial and otherwise (e.g. grants, loans, tax allowances) which are intended to achieve desired results or behavior (see also "incentives"). (Source: IISD 2005)

sustainable development (SD) : a concept that has emerged in recent years, based on the premise that development must meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (Source: IISD 2005)

sustainable forest management (SFM): management regimes applied to forestland that maintain the productive and renewal capacities as well as the genetic, species and ecological diversity of forest ecosystems” according to the U.S. Forest Service. (Source: USAID 2005)

sustainable tourism: The World Tourism Organization (WTO) has defined sustainable tourism as an enterprise that achieves an effective balance between the environmental, economic, and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development in order to guarantee long-term benefits to recipient communities. (Source: WTO 2005) (also see: "ecotourism")

sustainable use: the uses of the biological products and ecological services of ecosystems in a manner and at a rate that does not reduce the system’s ability to provide those products and services to future generations. (Source: USAID 2005) [ALSO] Sustainable use of the environment and its living resources is use at a rate that does not exceed its capacity for renewal in order to ensure its availability for future generations. Sustainable management involves finding a balance between meeting the needs of our current generation while conserving natural resources and protecting the environment for the benefit of future generations. (Source: SMurray) [ALSO sustainable use of forests] Sustainable management is the prerequisite for the sustainable use of forests. Sustainable management means the stewardship and use of forests and forest lands in such a way and at such a rate that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfil, now and in the future, relevant ecological and social functions at local, national, and global levels and that does not cause damage to other ecosystems. (Source: EFI 2002)

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temperate forest: The woodland or rather mild climatic areas, composed mainly of deciduous trees; Vegetation type with a more or less continuous canopy of broad-leaved trees. Such forests occur between approximately 25° and 50° latitude in both hemispheres. Toward the polar regions they grade into boreal forests, which are dominated by evergreen conifers, so that mixed forests containing both deciduous and coniferous trees occupy intermediate areas. Temperate forests ususally are classified into two main groups - deciduous and evergreen. (Source: EFI 2002)

tenure: recognized rights and responsibilities (e.g., formal and legal authority) to use and manage an area of land or water and/or the biodiversity resources found there. (Source: USAID 2005)

threats (to nature/biodiversity): processes and actions that may diminish biological diversity, including conversion of natural habitats, overexploitation of valuable species, introduction of invasive species, and environmental change, such as climate change, desertification and pollution. (Source: USAID 2005)

threats-based approach: emphasizes the development of a logical plan for determining which threats will be addressed, and how. The plan must clearly identify the linkages between threats and proposed activities. (Source: USAID 2005) [ALSO] A diagnostic and planning method to designing interventions that focuses on determining the most significant threats to biodiversity, and clearly identifying the linkages between major threats and proposed activities to address them. (Source: SMurray)

traditional ecological knowledge: the knowledge, practices, and beliefs that traditional cultures use to conceptualize and interact with their environments. (Source: USAID 2005)

transboundary conservation area:refers to cross-border collaboration to achieve biodiversity conservation and development goals. Transboundary conservation areas can include two or more contiguous protected areas across a national boundary; a cluster of protected areas separated by other land uses; a cluster of separated protected areas without intervening land; a transborder area including proposed protected areas; or a protected area on one side of the political boundary along with complimentary land use across the border. (Source: USAID 2005)

trends (environmental, social)/trends analysis:

tropical forest: A tropical woodland with an annual rainfall of at least 250 cm, marked by broadleaved evergreen trees forming a continuous canopy. (Source: EFI 2002)

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umbrella species: a wide-ranging species whose conservation requires a large area of natural habitat in which many other species can survive; sometimes a keystone, charismatic, or “flagship” species, but not necessarily so. Examples include the elephant and tiger. (Source: USAID 2005)


uneven-aged forest: A stand in which trees of all or almost all age classes from seedlings to mature trees are represented; High forest in which there is a mixture of different age classes. Ususally, the trees can not be separated into different storeys. (Source: EFI 2002)

unproductive forest: A forest which is not regularly managed and have an increment in volume less than 1 m3/ha/year in the foreseeable future. Generally the term also includes proteciton forest in e.g., critical watersheds. (Source: EFI 2002)

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viability: Viability indicates the ability of a conservation target to persist for many generations or over long time periods. (Source: TNC 2005)


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watershed/catchment/river basin: Within ecoregions and landscapes, the flow of water is managed by humans and affected by human and natural processes. Topography shapes water flows and affects human societies: upstream water uses affect downstream users. A watershed is the area that drains a body of water, such as the upland streams that flow into a river. Catchment may be a smaller unit of the larger watershed of a major river body. A river basin and its beds are environmentally sensitive areas whose degradation also affects human well being. Many communities are now organized into watershed or catchment groups to improve water quality and enhance other environmental and recreational services. (Source: DRobinson). [ALSO] All these terms describe the land area from which surface water runoff drains into a stream, channel, lake, reservoir, or other body of water. The terms are sometimes used interchangeably, as they all refer to the surface hydrologic system. However, ‘basin’ generally refers to a much larger geographic area than watershed, usually the drainage surface of a major river or lake system. While ‘watershed’ is used in some places to describe entire river basins, it is most often used to describe smaller sub-basins or micro-basins draining to secondary or tertiary streams or tributaries. The term ‘watershed management’ also often has a connotation of traditional soil and water conservation activities in some regions (as opposed to the more comprehensive IWRM).  Catchment is a term in more common usage in Africa and Australia , and Europe , and can describe drainage basins or watersheds of many different sizes. (Source: SMurray)


wilderness/wilderness area: Usually large areas, uninhabitated and roadless, which allow traditional means of livelihood, such as reindeer husbandry, whereas in North America no human intervention is allowed except controlled recreation. Also, restricted forest use within specified zones of protected wilderness areas may be allowed. (Source: EFI 2002)


wooded land/woodland: Land either with a tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of 5-10 percent of trees able to reach a height of 5 m at maturity in situ; or a crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10% of trees not able to reach a height of 5 m at maturity in situ (e.g., dward or stunted trees) and shrubs or bush cover. (Source: EFI 2002)

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zero-discharge technology: technology that comprises industrial processes designed to prevent the release of any pollutant harmful to the environment (e.g. recovery of solvents, cleaning rinses, and other chemicals used in manufacturing by collecting them and removing dissolved and suspended materials so the liquids can be reused). (Source: IISD 2005)

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Source: (USAID 2005) from "USAID Biodiversity Primer"

Source: (TNC 2005) from website; The Nature Conservacy (updated: Aug 2005)

Source: (IISD 2005) from IISD website; (updated: Aug 2005)

Source: (WTO 2005) from WTO website; (updated: Aug 2005)

Source: (CFSC 2005) from Communication for Social Change Consortium website; (updated: Aug 2005)

Source: (EFI 2002) from European Forest Institute, Internal Report No. 6, 2002 "Compliation of Forestry Terms and Definitions" by Schuck, Paivinen, Hytonen, and Pajari.

*pers. comm.

(pers. comm. DRobinson) Doreen Robinson, USAID Washington Biodiversity Team, citing: Lincoln et al. 1982; Dinerstein, 2002)

( pers. comm. PSmith) Patrick Smith, USAID Washington Biodiversity Team

( pers. comm. SMurray) Sharon Murray, USAID Washington Water Team

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