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Protected areas and rights movements: The inadequacies of Nepal's participatory conservation

Paudel, Naya S. , Jana, Sudeep , Rai, Jailab

Protected areas and rights movements: The inadequacies of Nepal's participatory conservation

Over the past few decades, “participatory conservation” has been the hallmark of conservation initiatives in Nepal and worldwide. This paper highlights the limitations of participatory conservation in light of the resistance movements around protected areas management in Nepal. This paper draws from diverse cases and experiences of local resistance; grassroots social movements and civic actions and demonstrates the inadequacies of participatory interventions in addressing many legitimate concerns of indigenous peoples and local communities. The current legal and institutional spaces within the participatory modalities—despite their several promises—are too limited to enable local people to organise, consolidate and express their views, and thereby constrain their ability to influence the plans and programmes. Consequently, the local and indigenous people organise themselves outside the official spaces and frequently question the very essence of participatory policies. The paper then draws implications for protected area policies, legal reform as well as their democratic governance. This paper provides a good insight into the short comings of community forestry in Nepal. It outlines some of the challenges faced which are relavent to NWP. It shows how often the participatory approach has limited impact on Wealth and how Power is not always distributed equally depending on the social and cultural context. It also highlights that while Nature and Wealth can be mutually beneficial, there can also be a trade off between one and the other. (ie. pursuing improvements in Nature at the expense of Wealth.) It shows how important it is to strike a balance that allows for the economically beneficial exploitation of natural resources and for sustainable conservation of those same resources.

Kelly Gibbons
Jan 11, 2013 12:00 AM
ForestAction
Regional case study, Sectoral review
 
Asia
Nepal
Biodiversity
Forest
NTFPs
Timber
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Accomplished]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Relevant]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Relevant]
Invested in local organizations - [Relevant]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Relevant]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Relevant]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Relevant]n
Participatory Planning
Land use planning
Land tenure securitization
Tree tenure rights
Resource user groups
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Gender]
Environmental/productivity - [Household]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Gender]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Gender]
Governance/empowerment - [Household]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)
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