RM Portal — CBNRM Annotations

Ager, Tim; Builta, Drake; Chisolm, Rachel; Dolder, Craig; Espinosa, Liliana; Hoessle, Anna; Read, Laura; Salas, Fernando; Woo, Melissa; Wood, Alison; 2012. Hausta, Peru Pre-assessment Report. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/hausta-peru-pre-assessment-report

Kelly Gibbons
The objective of the irrigation project in Huasta is to implement an improved irrigation system that will serve as a pilot project to promote water conservation practices for small-scale agriculture within the region. The scope of the project includes the following: (1) develop spring source(s) to provide sufficient water for the irrigation of a community-owned pasture during the dry season; (2) build/install one (or multiple as needed) water storage tanks; (3) design and install a conveyance system to move water from the spring(s) down to the pasture; (4) install an improved/more efficient irrigation system to water the pasture land; and (5) establish a maintenance and monitoring program for the entire system from the source to the point of use. This document gives a good background on the Huasta region and the climate change challenges faced by the communitities in the region. It disucsses local organizations and adaptation to climate change using NWP and CBNRM practices, and discusses the limitations and challenges faced in the region.
Project technical document (e.g. focusing on one or more aspects, such as technical approach, monitoring, application of a specific tool, etc)
★★
Latin America and Caribbean - South America
Preru
Huasta
Engineers Without Boarders - USA
Huasta, Peru - Agriculture (Irrigation)
Agriculture
Biodiversity
Field Crops
Groundwater
Irrigation Water
Surface Water
Biodiversity
Watershed
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Relevant]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Relevant]
Water rights
Resource user groups
Water harvesting
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]

Alix-Garcia, Jennifer M., Shapiro, Elizabeth N., Sims, Katharine R.E. 2010. Impacts of Payments for Ecosystem Services on Deforestation in Mexico: Preliminary Lessons for REDD. Tenure Briefs. U. Wisconsin-Madison Land Tenure Center. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/translinks-2010/land-tenure-center/Paper_ImpactOfPESonDeforestationMexico.pdf

Michael Colby
USAID/E3/LTRM
The brief summarizes an evaluation of the environmental effectiveness of Mexico’s national Payments for Hydrological (Watershed) Services program, which compensates rural landowners for avoided deforestation. The evaluation found that in an early year of implementation Mexico’s program had a small to moderate but significant effect in reducing deforestation, indicating that financial compensation policies can be effective in preventing environmental degradation. The research also suggests that some slippage (leakage) of deforestation may have occurred, implying that avoided deforestation is best accounted for at a regional or national level. This paper is of interest for CBNRM because the Mexican government has adjusted its targeting criteria over time to include poor and indigenous communities as preferred beneficiaries in their national Payments for Hydrological Services program, sometimes but not always at a cost of reducing the environmental benefits that result from the program. Thus this unique program discusses Governance systems needed to manage incentives for and tradeoffs between Nature and Wealth, combines pro-poor PES incentives and CBNRM from the local to the national scale, and offers lessons for further scaling up for climate change mitigation through REDD+.
Country-based case study
★★★★★
Latin America and Caribbean - Mexico
Mexico
multiple
multiple
Mexico Payments for Hydrological Services program
Forest
Groundwater
Irrigation Water
Other (Write In)
Watersheds
Watershed
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Accomplished]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Accomplished]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Accomplished]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Accomplished]
Invested in local organizations - [Accomplished]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Accomplished]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Accomplished]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Accomplished]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Accomplished]
Land use planning
Payments for ecosystem services
Devolution to communities
GIS/remote sensing
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Allison, Edward H.; Ratner, Blake D.; Asgard, Bjorn; Willmann, Rolf; Pomeroy, Robert; Kurien, John; 2012. Rights-based fisheries governance: from fishing rights to human rights. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/rights-based-fisheries-governance-from-fishing-rights-to-human-rights-1

Shreya Mehta
In the last twenty years, policy prescriptions for addressing the global crisis in fisheries have centred on strengthening fisheries governance through clarifying exclusive individual or community rights of access to fishery resources. With a focus on small-scale developing-country fisheries in particular, this article argues that basing the case for fishery governance reform on assumed economic incentives for resource stewardship is insufficient when there are other sources of insecurity in people’s lives that are unrelated to the state of fishery resources. The authors argue that more secure, less vulnerable fishers make more effective and motivated fishery managers in the context of participatory or rights-based fisheries governance, and further suggest that insecurity among fishers living in poverty can be most effectively addressed by social and political development that invokes the existing legal framework supporting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This perspective goes well beyond the widely advocated notion of ‘rights-based fishing’ and aligns what fishery sector analysts call the ‘rights-based approach’ with the same terminology used in the context of international development. Embedding the fisheries governance challenge within a broader perspective of human rights enhances the chances of achieving both human development and resource sustainability outcomes in small-scale fisheries of developing countries. This article is extremely useful to the impact of NWP inputs. It goes beyond a "devolution of rights" and beyond "rights based fishing" but as a pure governance issue and ensuring that having the right to fish is a human rights issue. It is felt that more secure, less vulnerable fisherfolk have more incentive to participate in saving fish stocks and therefore make more effective and motivated fishery managers in the context of participatory or rights-based fisheries governance.
Journal article, Tool/methodology (e.g. legal analysis, value chain analysis, participatory methods, rapid assessment)
★★★★
Fisheries
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Critical]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Relevant]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Relevant]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Critical]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Accomplished]
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Other (Write In)
Fishing rights is Human Rights
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]

Anderson, J.; Bryceson, D.; Campbell, B.; Chitundu, D.; Clarke, J.; Drinkwater, M.; Fakir, S.; Frost, P.G.H.; Gambiza, J.; Grundy, I.; Hagmann, J.; Jones, B.; Jones, G. W.; Kowero, G.; Luckert, M.; Mortimore, M.; Phiri, Aaron D. K.; Potgieter, P.; Shackleton, S.; Williams, T.; . CHANCE, CHANGE AND CHOICE IN AFRICA’S DRYLANDS. USAID. USAID. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/chance-change-and-choice-in-africa2019s-drylands

Shreya Mehta
The African drylands are home to 268 million people, or 40% of the continent’s population and, excluding deserts, they comprise 43% of the continent’s surface area. The drylands of Sub- Saharan Africa are spatially heterogeneous — overlain on the rainfall gradient are rivers and wetlands within the drylands, a wide variety of soil types, and differences in land use, infrastructure development and market accessibility. Blueprint policies have not worked, primarily because they lack or constrain the flexibility that people need to survive and prosper in such regions. The often low and highly variable rainfall creates risky environments for households, but people have responded with resilience, adaptability and dynamism, taking advantage of transient opportunities, and developing and maintaining strong links between their dryland economies and more humid or urbanised regions. People’s economic activities are characterised by innovation and experimentation, both in the use of natural resources and in exploiting livelihood opportunities elsewhere. Their knowledge forms a valuable resource in managing risky environments, in contrast to the narrower understanding that often underpins introduced technologies, many of which have failed. Past policies on drylands have failed in another respect: they focused primarily on the presumed limitations of the natural resource base rather than on the people, their knowledge, skills and capacity for innovation in overcoming or circumventing environmental constraints. This study provides reasons as to why it is necessary to invest in drylands, what are the incentives that are needed to secure dryland livelihoods and what the new aproaches to policy are. There is high cost in not investing in drylands. For example the lack of investment will erode the productive capacity of dryland households thereby reducing both market and subsistence production. This will also increase vulnerability to drought, climate change, HIV/AIDS and economic and political instability.
Project overview document/gray literature, Regional case study, Evaluation Essay/Booklet
★★★★
Africa
Africa - Southern
Africa - West
Africa - Sahel
Kenya, Burkina Faso and Namibia
Field Crops
Fodder
Forest
Livestock
Soil Erosion
Soil Quality
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Critical]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Critical]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Critical]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Critical]
Land use planning
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]

Arntzen, Jaap; Setlhogile, Tshepo; Barnes, Jon; 2007. Rural Livelihoods, poverty reduction and food security in southern Africa: is CBNRM the answer? . USAID. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/rural-livelihoods-poverty-reduction-and-food-security-in-southern-africa-is-cbnrm-the-answer

Brian Jones
Independent consultant
Very useful review for southern Africa on the impacts of CBNRM on rural livelihoods, poverty and food security particullary because of the authors' backgrounds in economics. Has a useful discussion in the comparative advantages between livestock and wildlife, suggesting that one does not necessarily always outcompete the other in terms of fianncial and economic returns - it depends on the circustances and conditions on the ground. Concludes that CBNRM is economically efficient, contributing positively to national income and employment. Also that CBNRM appears to generate significant positive financial benefits at community level, even considering the costs of living with wildlife (human-wildlife conflict). However, concludes that the picture is less clear regarding the impact of CBNRM on the income and welfare of individual households. CBNRM is complementary to other rural land uses, rather than replacing them.
Regional case study, Comparative analysis of cases or tools, Meta-analysis of literature
★★★★
Africa - Southern
Biodiversity
Forest
Livestock
NTFPs
Rangeland
Tourism
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Bampton, James F.R.; Ebregt, Arthur; Banjade, Mani Ram; 2007. Collaborative Forest Management in Nepal's Terai: Policy, Practice and Contestation. Journal of Forest and Livelihood. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/collaborative-forest-management-in-nepals-terai-policy-practice-and-contestation

Kelly Gibbons
In the context of weak management focus of valuable large tracts of forest in the Terai, the Government of Nepal introduced collaborative forest management (CFM) as the newest modality of forest management in the country. The CFM model focuses on large contiguous blocks of productive forests in the Terai and Inner Terai. This paper analyses how and why CFM evolved as a policy for Nepal’s Terai forests, progress and issues to date, and the impact so far. The model is being piloted in three central Terai districts by the Department of Forest through a donor-supported programme. The paper also explores contested claims about the CFM model made by civil society groups. It concludes that, despite addressing the genuine need for a multi-stakeholder forestry programme in the Terai, CFM continues to suffer from limited participation of stakeholders in defining and implementing the policy. This article describes some of the challenges of communtiy forestry in the Terai where it has not achieved much success. It addresses some of the differences in user group composition and size hider their ability to create equitable community plans. It also addresses the issues of Power that are constraining community forestry because of the high opportunity cost of allowing community forestry in the region.
Journal article
★★★★
Asia
Nepal
Biodiversity
Forest
NTFPs
Timber
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Critical]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Critical]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Critical]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Critical]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Critical]
Invested in local organizations - [Critical]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Critical]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Critical]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Critical]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Critical]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Critical]
Participatory Planning
Information/knowledge management technology
Land use planning
Land tenure securitization
Tree tenure rights
Resource user groups
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Barrett, Christopher B.; Gibson, Clark C.; Hoffman, Barak; Mccubbins, Mathew D.; . The Complex Links between Governance and Biodiversity. Conservation Biology. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/the-complex-links-between-governance-and-biodiversity-1

Shreya Mehta
This journal piece argues that two problems weaken the claims of those who link corruption and the exploitation of natural resources. The first is conceptual and the second is methodological. Studies that use national-level indicators of corruption fail to note that corruption comes in many forms, at multiple levels, that may affect resource use quite differently: negatively, positively, or not at all. Without a clear causal model of the mechanism by which corruption affects resources, one should treat with caution any estimated relationship between corruption and the state of natural resources. Simple, atheoretical models linking corruption measures and natural resource use typically do not account for other important control variables pivotal to the relationship between humans and natural resources. By way of illustration of these two general concerns, we used statistical methods to demonstrate that the findings of a recent, well-known study that posits a link between corruption and decreases in forests and elephants are not robust to simple conceptual and methodological refinements. In particular, once we controlled for a few plausible anthropogenic and biophysical conditioning factors, estimated the effects in changes rather than levels so as not to confound cross-sectional and longitudinal variation, and incorporated additional observations from the same data sources, corruption levels no longer had any explanatory power. This essay concludes that An appropriate benchmark of the links between corruption and natural resources, established from the existing literature (e.g., McPherson & Nieswiadomy 2000; Smith et al. 2003b; Katzner 2005), is whatwe call the conventional model. This model assumes that developing countries suffer from entrenched patronage politics, lack the rule of law, have low-paid civil servants, and “nonexistent accountability.” corruption and natural resources might be related, but not in the causal ways commonly posited in simple models. Indeed, the causal relation, if any exists, could plausibly involve corruption reducing, rather than accelerating, natural resource degradation. Perhaps this implies that good governance is not a requirement for natural resource management as the author writes: The links between national-level governance and natural resources are many and tangled. Additional work that attempts to bridge the social and natural sciences is clearly needed to better explain these important and complex relationships.
Journal article, Project overview document/gray literature, Meta-analysis of literature
★★★
Global
Biodiversity
Forest
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Barrett, Christopher; Brandon, Katrina; Gibson, Clark; Guertsen, Heidi; 2001. Conserving Tropical Biodiversity amid Weak Institutions . BioScience. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/conserving-tropical-biodiversity-amid-weak-institutions

Jon Anderson
IRG/Engility
The authors believe that the community based model of NRM, as a reaction to the failed top down (central government) model, needs reconsideration. There needs to be a much more refined view of the institutional landscape and the strenghts of different organisational types. The article makes 4 claims: 1) the current approach to NRM overspmphsizes the community; 2) economic and biophysical scale issues argue for the involvement of multiple organizations; 3) there are weak institutions at all levels; and 4) support is needed from international and national actors. The article brings up the useful notions of opportunity costs, transaction costs and comparative advantage.
Journal article
★★★★
Global
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Critical]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Invested in local organizations - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Baur, Erick H., McNab, Roan B., Ramos, Victor Hugo, Strindberg, Samantha, Williams, Lovett E. 2008. Community-Based Ocellated Turkey (Meleagris ocellata) Sport Hunting in the Petén, Guatemala. Forest Ecology and Management. Wildlife Conservation Society 2008/Elsevier 2012. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/translinks-2008/wildlife-conservation-society/TurkeySportHuntingGuatemala_CaseStudy_WCS_2008.pdf

Michael Colby/Jon Anderson
USAID/IRG-Engility
This is a well written, clear article about a successful CBNRM program focused on sustainable sports hunting (of wild oscellated turkeys) in a multipurpose resource management environment, that has increased both the turkey population and community incomes. It covers the dimensions of NWP: the characteristic of the resource base; the economic and benefit distribution elements of the activity; and the management, social and governance dimensions. In spite of some bureaucratic constraints significant income has been generated in partnership with the private sector and others. It concludes that "sports hunting can offer profitable and sustainable forest product diversification alternatives." A condensed but updated version was subsequently published in Forest Ecology and Management: 268 (2012) pp 112-120.
Project overview document/gray literature, Site-based case study
★★★★★
Latin America and Caribbean - Central America
Guatemala
Peten
WCS, USAID
TransLinks
Biodiversity
Tourism
Whole Landscape
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Accomplished]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Accomplished]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Accomplished]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Accomplished]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Critical]
Invested in local organizations - [Critical]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Critical]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Critical]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Critical]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Critical]
Land use planning
Payments for ecosystem services
Value chain strengthening/conservation marketing
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)

Baur, Erick H.; McNab, Roan B.; Williams, Lovett E. Jr.; Ramos, Victor H.; Radachowsky, Jeremy; Guariguata, Manuel R.; 2012. Multiple forest use through commercial sport hunting: Lessons from a community-based model from the Petén, Guatemala. Forest Ecology and Management. Elsevier. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/multiple-forest-use-through-commercial-sport-hunting-lessons-from-a-community-based-model-from-the-peten-guatemala

Jon Anderson
IRG/Engility
This is a well written, clear article about a successful CBNRM program focussed on sustainable sports hunting in a multipurpose resource management environment. It covers the dimensions of NWP: the characteristic of the resource base; the economic and benefit distribution elements of the activity; and the management, social and governance dimensions. Inspite of some bureaucratic constraints significant income has been generated in partnership with the private secor and others. It concludes that "sports hunting can offer profitable and sustainable forest product diversification alternatives".
Journal article
★★★★
Latin America and Caribbean - Central America
Guatemala
Peten
Proyecto Pavo
Wildlife
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Accomplished]
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Critical]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Accomplished]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Relevant]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Accomplished]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Critical]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Accomplished]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Critical]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Accomplished]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Critical]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Accomplished]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Relevant]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Accomplished]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Critical]
Invested in local organizations - [Relevant]
Invested in local organizations - [Accomplished]
Invested in local organizations - [Critical]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Accomplished]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Critical]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Accomplished]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Critical]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Relevant]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Accomplished]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Critical]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Accomplished]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Accomplished]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Accomplished]
Land use planning
Payments for ecosystem services
Value chain strengthening/conservation marketing
Resource user groups
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)

Berkes, Fikret; . Rethinking Community-based Conservation. Conservation Biology. Natural Resources Institute. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/rethinking-community-based-conservation

Shreya Mehta
The article examines CBC because its controversial nature. It is argued that the community development objectives are not necessarily consistent with conservation objectives. This article examines how CBC can be seen in the context of paradigm shifts in ecology and applied ecology. The author also investigates the feasibility of CBC as informed by a number of emerging interdisciplinary fields that have been pursuing various aspects of coupled systems of humans and nature. Some investigations has hold that the failure of CBC is not due to the weakness of impracticaility of the concept but rather to its improper implementation especially with regard to the devolution of authory and responsbility. Furthermore the rethinking here is to acknowledge that there has been a historical shift in ecology and applied ecology toward a systems view of the environemtn, a perspective that sees humans as part of th ecosystem, and an emerging practice of participatory mangaement. Conservation has become participatory. There has been a rise of stakholders,
Journal article, Project overview document/gray literature, Comparative analysis of cases or tools, Other - enter below
★★★★
Global
Other (Write In)
Community Based Conservation as a whole
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Critical]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Critical]
Land use planning
Land tenure securitization
Tree tenure rights
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change
Lessons learned (Success Story)

Blaikie, Piers; . Is Small Really Beautiful? . World Development. Elsevier. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/is-small-really-beautiful

Jon Anderson
IRG/Engility
Blaikie is skeptical of CBNRM and believes that it has been a failure for the most part. He believes that it is perpetuated because it contains a number of concepts with "warm emotional pull" but has been dissappointing on the ground and is often unpopular with local communities. One area where it has been successful is in capturing donor resources. Blaikie breaks down the term CBNRM in very critical ways. The article focuses on Botswana and Malawi. He believes that an analysis of the "political interface of the international and national at which CBNRM is produced" is needed. He contrasts CBNRM as a field failure but a policy success. For CBNRM practitioners this article will seem overly critical and theoretical but it merits reflection.
Journal article
★★★
Africa - Southern
Botswana and Malawi
USAID and others
Tourism
Wildlife
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Boudreaux, Karol; 2007. Community-Based Natural Resource Management in Namibia: A Case Study. George Mason Unviversity. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/community-based-natural-resource-management-in-namibia-a-case-study

Jon Anderson
IRG/Engility
This positive review of the conservancy program in Namibia ends with several policy recommendations: 1) clarify the process of resolving land use conflicts, 2) devolve additional rights (management of leaseholds within conservancies, 3) do more to ensure the institutional environment is supportive of entrepreneurship, and 4) support additional capacity building
Country-based case study
★★★★
Africa
Africa - Southern
Namibia
Wildlife
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Critical]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Critical]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)

Burgess, Sarah; Heng,Sokh; Sloth, Arvid; 2007. A Decade in Forest Management and Planning in Cambodia: A Synthesis of Forestry Reviews and Supportive Studies. Forest & Landscape Denmark. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/a-decade-in-forest-management-and-planning-in-cambodia-a-synthesis-of-forestry-reviews-and-supportive-studies

GF Taylor
Essential reading for anyone wanting to understand where the forestry sector is headed in Cambodia. A Task Force of 22 people from six Ministries, multiple donors, several NGOs and the Cambodia Timber Industry Association put these documents together, with additional individuals in Working Groups that designed the Six Programmes that form the heart of the National Forest Programme (NFP). The background document is particularly helpful in understanding how things have evolved up to the present.
Project overview document/gray literature, Comparative analysis of cases or tools
★★★★
Asia - Southeast
Cambodia
Forest
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Accomplished]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Critical]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Critical]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Critical]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Invested in local organizations - [Critical]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Tree tenure rights
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]

Carter, Jane; Pokharel, BharatBharat; Parajuli, Rudriksha Rai; . Two decades of community forestry in Nepal: What have learned?. Nepal Swiss Community Forestry Project. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/two-decades-of-community-forestry-in-nepal-what-have-learned

Kelly Gibbons
This study takes a multi-stakeholder look at community forestry in Nepal and its successes and failures over the past 30 years. Development projects conceived now are rarely expected to have a life of more than five years, perhaps ten years at most. Looking back over more than twenty years of project experience in community forestry - itself grounded on an integrated development project of a similar time span - is thus a rare opportunity. Of course trees and forests require a longer establishment period than many other development interventions, and that is part of the rational for a long time frame. This project has also sought to promote social change in favor of the poor and disadvantaged, and it was recognized by the stakeholders involved in the project and by independent evaluators that this is not rapidly achieved, but achievable. This study highlights the interconnectivity of NWP and the challenges that it can face in implementation. It seeks to review and document the part that the NSCFP has played in the development of community forestry in Nepal.
Project overview document/gray literature
★★★★
Asia - South
Nepal
Swiss Agency for Development
Biodiversity
Forest
NTFPs
Timber
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Accomplished]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Accomplished]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Accomplished]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Accomplished]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Accomplished]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Accomplished]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Accomplished]
Invested in local organizations - [Accomplished]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Accomplished]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Accomplished]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Accomplished]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Accomplished]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Accomplished]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Accomplished]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Accomplished]
Participatory Planning
Land use planning
Land tenure securitization
Tree tenure rights
Resource user groups
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Gender]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Gender]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Clements, Tom, John, Ashish, Nielsen, Karen, An, Dara, Tan, Setha, Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2009. TransLinks: Case Study: Payments for Biodiversity Conservation in the Context of Weak Institutions Featured November 22, 2011. Ecological Economics. Wildlife Conservation Society + Elsevier. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/translinks-2009/wildlife-conservation-society/casestudy_paymentsforbiodiversityconservationcambodia.pdf

Michael Colby
USAID/E3/LTRM
This paper is a case study that combines CBNRM with a Nature, Wealth, and Power approach to payments for ecosystem services (direct biodiversity and habitat protection) and biodiversity-friendly agricultural and tourism development. Implementing any conservation intervention, including Payments for Environmental Services (PES), in the context of weak institutions is challenging. The majority of PES programs have been implemented in situations where the institutional framework and property rights are strong and target the behaviors of private landowners. By contrast, this paper compares three different payment/incentive programs for biodiversity conservation from a single village in a forest landscape in Cambodia, where land and resource rights are poorly defined, governance is poor, species populations are low and threats are high. It combines a conventionally defined PES mechanism with certification of Wildlife FriendlyTM enterprise development for both eco-tourism and agricultural activities. Originally written as a USAID/TransLinks Case Study that combined and updated previous reports on the different mechanisms, a condensed version of this paper was subsequently published in the journal Ecological Economics, vol. 69 (2010) pp. 1283-1291
Journal article, Project overview document/gray literature, Project technical document (e.g. focusing on one or more aspects, such as technical approach, monitoring, application of a specific tool, etc), Site-based case study, Comparative analysis of cases or tools
★★★★★
Asia - Southeast
Cambodia
Tmatboey
WCS, USAID, and others
TransLinks
Biodiversity
Field Crops
Forest
Tourism
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Critical]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Critical]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Critical]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Critical]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Critical]
Invested in local organizations - [Critical]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Critical]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Critical]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Critical]
Participatory Planning
Land use planning
Payments for ecosystem services
Value chain strengthening/conservation marketing
Participatory processes for social change
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Environmental/productivity - [Household]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Gender]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Gender]
Governance/empowerment - [Household]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Gender]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Lessons learned (Success Story)

Connolly, Christina; Walston, Joe; Masozera, Michel; Hega, Martin; Starkey, Malcolm; 2009. Challenges to Establishing Payments for Ecosystem Services in Gabon: A Case study of the Mbé River Basin. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/translinks-2009/wildlife-conservation-society/casestudy_challengestoestablishingpesgabon.pdf

Mike Colby
USAID
Initial rating - 3 stars
★★★
Biodiversity
Forest
Watershed

Costenbader, John; 2010. Legal Frameworks for REDD - Design and Implementation at the National Level (IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 77). https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/translinks-2010/forest-trends/Paper_LegalFrameworksforREDD.pdf

Michael Colby
★★★★

Cox, Michael; Arnold, Gwen; Villamayor Tomás,Sergio; 2010. A Review of Design Principles for Community-based Natural Resource Management. Ecology and Society. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/cbnrm%20library%20/a-review-of-design-principles-for-community-based-natural-resource-management

Thomas M. Catterson
IRG
Interesting document which discusses and documents the theoretical under-pinnings of CBNRM principles as outlined in 1990 by Elinor Ostrom and the experience since then. This article is, however, very theoretical and nuanced and more adapted to the needs of an academic studying CBNRM than a practitioneer. This article is very much about the institutional arrangements for successful CBNRM.
Journal article, Tool/methodology (e.g. legal analysis, value chain analysis, participatory methods, rapid assessment), Comparative analysis of cases or tools, Meta-analysis of literature
★★★
Global
Agriculture
Biodiversity
Coastal Zone
Fisheries
Forest
Irrigation Water
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Critical]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Critical]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Invested in local organizations - [Critical]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Critical]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Critical]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]

Craig Leisher, M. Sanjayan, Jill Blockhus, Andreas Kontoleon, S. Neil Larsen 2010. Does Conserving Biodiversity Work to Reduce Poverty? A State of Knowledge Review. --. TNC, Cambridge, IIED. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/usda-forest-service/africa/does-conserving-biodiversity-work-to-reduce-poverty-a-state-of-knowledge-review

Mike Colby
USAID/E3/LTRM
A major meta-review of 400+ documents for empirical evidence about the role of biodiversity conservation as a mechanism for poverty reduction. The highest amount of evidence of poverty benefits were found to come from nature tourism and fish sanctuary spillover, followed by agro-forestry, mangrove restoration, and agrobiodiversity. Lower amounts of evidence were found for non-timber forest products (NTFPs-despite many studies), community timber enterprises (ditto), payments for environmental services (PES, a relatively new but fast-growing field), protected area jobs, and grasslands management. The summary (page 1) contains a nice graphic representation of three parameters for each of the 10 types of conservation mechanisms: size of evidence base (# of studies), size of poverty reduction benefits, and size of biodiversity benefits.
Sectoral review, Comparative analysis of cases or tools, Meta-analysis of literature
Global
Schooner Foundation, HRH Foundation, Danida (Denmark), DFID (UK), DGIS (Netherlands), Irish Aid, NORAD (Norway), SDC (Switzerland), and Sida (Sweden)
Biodiversity
Fisheries
Forest
Mangroves
NTFPs
Timber
Tourism
Wildlife
Other (Write In)
Grasslands
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Payments for ecosystem services
Managed grazing
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

DSI; 2008. Review and synthesis of lessons learned concerning optimum forms of community management structures for multiple resource management in Zambia and southern and eastern Africa. Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources Zambia/UNDP. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/review-and-synthesis-of-lessons-learned-concerning-optimum-forms-of-community-management-structures-for-multiple-resource-management-in-zambia-and-southern-and-eastern-africa

Brian Jones
Independent consultant
The report found that in Zambia in general the performance of community structures is poor largely due to limited capacity, inadequate benefits, poor governance and inadequate policy and legislation. The authors conclude that the main lessons from their review indicate that where an appropriate mixture of economic and other incentives is in place, including clear resource rights, strong institutional arrangements and markets for natural resource products including tourism, the magnitude of benefits increases, stronger partnerships emerge and biodiversity conservation begins to take place - thus confirming the central tenets of NWP. the authors recommend that attention should also be given to governance including issues of transparency and accountability in decision making and financial management, which also confirms findings from other reviews. Generally insufficient attention is given to these issues. The document has a useful review of the appropriateness of different types of community structure for NRM and empahsises the need for such structrues to be a legal entity.
Project technical document (e.g. focusing on one or more aspects, such as technical approach, monitoring, application of a specific tool, etc), Regional case study, Comparative analysis of cases or tools
Africa
Africa - Southern
Zambia
GEF/UNDP
RECLASSIFICATION AND EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF THE
Biodiversity
Fisheries
Forest
NTFPs
Tourism
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Relevant]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

De Gryze, Steven, Durschinger, Leslie, Koontz, Ann, Pandey, Shiva, Subedi, Bhishma 2009. Payment for Ecosystem Services: Developing Forest Carbon Projects in Nepal. none. EnterpriseWorks/VITA. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/translinks-2009/enterprise-works-vita-relief-international/casestudy_forestcarbonprojectsnepal.pdf

Michael Colby
USAID/E3/LTRM
This case/fesibility study builds on the decade+ of work withcommunity forest user groups in Nepal, to identify the potential for forest carbon projects (PES/REDD+) to add another economic incentive to the tremendous success that has already been achieved with CBNRM for trees and non-timber forest products. It summarizes the eligibility requirements under the various carbon markets and registries - Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS), Clean Development Mechanism (CDM, and Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA); and provides a specific case feasibility analysis from Dolakha District in Nepal
Project technical document (e.g. focusing on one or more aspects, such as technical approach, monitoring, application of a specific tool, etc), Site-based case study, Other - enter below Feasibility analysis
★★★★
Asia
Nepal
Dolakha District
USAID, Norway
Nepal REDD+ project
Forest
NTFPs
Whole Landscape
Forest Carbon
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Relevant]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Relevant]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Critical]
Tree tenure rights
Payments for ecosystem services
Resource user groups
Devolution to communities
Environmental/productivity - [Gender]
Environmental/productivity - [Household]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Gender]
Environmental/productivity - [Household]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Gender]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Gender]
Governance/empowerment - [Household]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Durbar, Singha; 2009. Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector Outlook Study. FAO. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/asia-pacific-forestry-sector-outlook-study

Kelly Gibbons
This document assess the state of forestry in Nepal including estimates about current coverage, impacts on the economy, changes in laws and institutions, and factors affecting the forestry sector in the different regions in Nepal. It is a good overview of the situation and some of the challenges and opportunities for the forestry sector. It also describes the CBNRM acheivements of Nepal's community forestry programs and the challenges and successes of the programs. It is a good overveiw of the framework of Nepal's Forestry sector and illustrates the steps Nepal has taken to improve forest management, many of which highlight the importance of NWP inputs.
Country-based case study
★★★★
Asia - Central
Nepal
FAO
Nepal Forestry Outlook Study
Biodiversity
Forest
NTFPs
Timber
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Critical]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Critical]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Critical]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Accomplished]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Accomplished]
Invested in local organizations - [Critical]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Accomplished]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Accomplished]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Accomplished]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Relevant]n
Participatory Planning
Information/knowledge management technology
Land use planning
Tree tenure rights
Resource user groups
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Governance/empowerment - [Gender]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Fisher, Robert; Prabhu, Ravi; McDougal, Cynthia; 2007. Adaptive Collaborative Management of Community Forests in Asia Experiences from Nepal, Indonesia and the Philippines. Center for International Forestry Research. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/adaptive-collaborative-management-of-community-forests-in-asia-experiences-from-nepal-indonesia-and-the-philippines

Shreya Mehta
The easy ‘solutions’ offered by centralised resource management no longer work, and the era of top-down decision making is all but over. Some of the new directions that have been proposed include learning-based approaches in place of set management prescriptions, using a broader range of knowledge (including local and indigenous knowledge), dealing with uncertainty and complexity, and of course the sharing of management power and responsibility. Resource management has become not a search for the optimal solution but an ongoing learning and collaboration process for shared problem solving. Adaptive management is a way of dealing with uncertainty and complexity; collaborative management is about sharing management power and responsibility. Adaptive management and collaborative management have been evolving towards a common ground. Adaptive management, without user collaboration, would become a sterile technocratic process; collaborative management, without a learning loop, eventually withers. In our recent book, Adaptive Co-Management: Collaboration, Learning and Multi-Level Governance (University of British Columbia Press, 2007), we found that time-tested collaborative management necessarily becomes adaptive collaborative management, not only in forestry but in a diversity of resource management areas. For forest-dependent peoples of Southeast Asia and elsewhere, making a living in a rapidly changing, globalised world requires continual learning, adaptation and collaboration. Managing forests in a rapidly changing world also requires a process of deliberate social learning and collaborative vi • Foreword problem solving. The development of flexible, participatory governance systems that can learn from experience and generate knowledge to cope with change is an important mechanism for adaptation and resilience. In a world characterized by unpredictable shocks and stresses, forest users and managers need alternatives and backup options. Social learning helps generate these options, building resilience in linked systems of forests and people. This volume contributes to a deeper understanding of the issues around deliberate social learning and collaboration, with chapters on four Asian cases. The Center for International Forestry Research is a world leader in this area; CIFOR researchers have been investigating adaptive collaborative management at least since 2000. The cases in this book aim to demonstrate what adaptive collaborative management is and how it can be applied in practice.
Book/chapter, Country-based case study, Regional case study, Comparative analysis of cases or tools
★★★★
Asia
Nepal, Indonesia and Philippines
Forest
Invested in local organizations - [Critical]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Critical]
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Forest Trends, The Katoomba Group 2010. Payments for Ecosystem Services: Getting Started in Marine and Coastal Ecosystems - A Primer. none. Forest Trends/Katoomba Group. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/translinks-2010/forest-trends/Manual_MarinePESPrimer.pdf

Michael Colby
USAID/E3/LTRM
A how-to manual compiled by Forest Trends and the Katoomba Group used for explaining to communities and NGOs what payments for ecosystem services (PES) are and how PES deals work in the marine/coastal environment. The primer is divided into 3 sections, the first reviews basic PES concepts, the second section details a step-by-step approach to developing marine PES deals, and the third section outlines opportunities, risks and ideal conditions for poverty reduction. It has been used in Mexico and Vietnam.
Tool/methodology (e.g. legal analysis, value chain analysis, participatory methods, rapid assessment)
★★★★
Global
USAID, Norway
TransLinks
Biodiversity
Coastal Zone
Coral Reefs
Fisheries
Mangroves
Sea grasses
Wetlands
Whole Seascape
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Blue Carbon
Storm Protection
Other (Write In)
Fish nursaries
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Relevant]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Relevant]
Invested in local organizations - [Relevant]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Relevant]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Relevant]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Relevant]n
Participatory Planning
Land use planning
Payments for ecosystem services
Devolution to communities
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]


Freudenberger, Karen; 2010. Paradise Lost?: Lessons from 25 years of USAID Environment Programs in Madagascar (Final Report). USAID. https://dev.rmportal.net/news-events/news-usaid-rmp-featured-stories/paradise-lost-madagascar

Jon Anderson
IRG/Engility
This is a unique retrospective on the successes and constraints of USAID's experience in the environment sector in Madagascar from 1984 to the coup in 2009. It firmly places environmental success in the larger economic and governance context. This context makes it extremely difficult to transform the approaches to the environment and stop environmental degradation. The author ends with three options - the one she seems to favor implies a dramatic shift from development business as usual and a much more prominent role for the international community in safeguarding Madagascar's global biodiversity heritage.
Country-based case study, Evaluation Program review
★★★★
Africa
Africa - Southern
Madagascar
USAID
Agriculture
Biodiversity
Forest
Minerals
NTFPs
Whole Landscape
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Critical]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Relevant]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Critical]
Invested in local organizations - [Critical]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Critical]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Critical]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Critical]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Critical]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Relevant]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Relevant]n
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Giri, Kalpana; Ojha, Hemant R.; 2011. How does techno-bureaucracy impede livelihood innovations in Community Forestry?. ForestAction. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/how-does-techno-bureaucracy-impede-livelihood-innovations-in-community-forestry

Kelly Gibbons
Over the past three decades, Nepal’s community forestry program has marked a tremendous shift from state-centric, top down model to community-based participatory approach to forest governance. Research confirms that such shift has led to significant improvements in local institutional arrangements (Power) and the condition of forest (Nature). Yet, recent studies indicate that livelihood benefits to local communities (Wealth), especially the poor and disadvantaged groups, remain limited. Such studies point to the need for problematising the participatory approach itself in order to unravel more complex pathways of, and constraints to, livelihoods innovations in community forestry. Drawing upon the experience of a participatory action research project, that aimed to understand and facilitate innovation systems in forest management in Nepal, this paper argues that limited livelihood outcomes (Wealth improvements) in community forestry can be attributed to the limited space for innovation, mainly restricted by regulatory practices and bureaucratic behaviour of state forest agencies (Power). Despite legal autonomy, local communities face significant hurdles and impediments as they plan to undertake innovative actions in forest management, utilization, marketing, and benefit sharing. Likewise, local communities get limited freedom to explore and utilise livelihood opportunities and have limited access to new information and ideas about improved methods, technologies and livelihood opportunities. A key conclusion is that livelihood innovations in community forestry are more related to bureaucratic and regulatory structures than to the commonly assumed internal processes and capacities of the local communities. This paper also identifies emerging threads of innovations that challenge such constraints and expand the space for innovation.
Country-based case study
Asia - South
Nepal
ForestAction
Biodiversity
Forest
NTFPs
Timber
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Critical]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Critical]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Critical]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Critical]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Relevant]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Critical]
Invested in local organizations - [Critical]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Critical]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Critical]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Critical]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Critical]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Critical]
Participatory Planning
Information/knowledge management technology
Land use planning
Land tenure securitization
Tree tenure rights
Resource user groups
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Glew, Louise; Hudson, Malcolm D.; Osborne, Patrick E.; 2010. Evaluating the effectiveness of community-based conservation in northern Kenya: A report to The Nature Conservancy. University of Southampton School of civil Engineering and the Environment . https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-community-based-conservation-in-northern-kenya-a-report-to-the-nature-conservancy

Brian Jones
Independent consultant
the authors found from sample of more than 600 households, that CBNRM initiatives in conservancies conservancies were found to enhance livelihoods in participating communities, compared to what would have been the case without the conservation initiative. In Namunyak and West Gate, community conservation has led to significant positive change in livelihoods for communities engaged in the initiative. Benefits occur at both the household and community level. Increasing physical security and access to affordable transport were the most important impacts for households. Some direct financial impacts have occurred through the provision of educational and medical scholarships and to a lesser extent through paid employment especially in tourism. Incomes in conservancy communities were significantly more likely to be described as ‘stable or increasing’ than in non-conservancy areas, and small-scale changes in the activities used to generate income are apparent. In addition there were improvements to habitat condition driven by sustainable grazing management. The report highlights the potential for combined wildlife/tourism/grazing programmes, particularly where pastoralism is a key livelihood activity. A focus on wildife and tourism alone is unlikley to meet many of the real needs of local people.
Project technical document (e.g. focusing on one or more aspects, such as technical approach, monitoring, application of a specific tool, etc), Site-based case study, Evaluation
★★★
Africa
Africa - East
Kenya
Northern Kenya
USAID; FFI
Northern Rangelands Trust community conservation
Biodiversity
Livestock
Rangeland
Tourism
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Accomplished]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Accomplished]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Accomplished]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Accomplished]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Accomplished]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Accomplished]
Invested in local organizations - [Accomplished]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Accomplished]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Accomplished]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Accomplished]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Accomplished]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Accomplished]
Participatory Planning
Land use planning
Resource user groups
Managed grazing
Economic/income generation - [Gender]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Household]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Household]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Lessons learned (Success Story)

Greiber, Thomas; International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN); The Katoomba Group; 2010. Payments for Ecosystem Services - Legal and Institutional Frameworks (IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 78). https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/translinks-2010/forest-trends/Paper_PESLegalandInstitutionalFrameworks.pdf

Michael Colby
Country-based case study, Sectoral review, Tool/methodology (e.g. legal analysis, value chain analysis, participatory methods, rapid assessment)
Africa - Central
Asia - Indo-Pacific
Latin America and Caribbean - South America
Forest Carbon
Watershed

Hockley, Neal; Andriamarovololona, Mijasoa M.; 2007. The economics of community forest management in Madagascar: Is there a free lunch?. USAID. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/the-economics-of-community-forest-management-in-madagascar-is-there-a-free-lunch

Jon Anderson
IRG/Englility
The report analyzes from an economic perspective the community forestry approach which transfers some management authority to local communities (COBAs). A large number of recommendations are made showing that the system is in need of reform if it is to sustainably meet its objectives. The report covers a range of issues but basically shows that the present system is extractive of local communities - outsiders are "extracting a free lunch" from the communities.
Project overview document/gray literature, Country-based case study, Tool/methodology (e.g. legal analysis, value chain analysis, participatory methods, rapid assessment)
★★★★
Africa
Africa - Southern
Madagascar
several
community forestry
Forest
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Relevant]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Critical]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Critical]
Invested in local organizations - [Relevant]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Critical]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Relevant]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Critical]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Land use planning
Land tenure securitization
Resource user groups
Devolution to communities
GIS/remote sensing
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Holmes, Christopher, Ingram, Jane Carter, Meyers, David, Crowley, Helen, Victurine, Ray 2008. Forest Carbon Financing for Biodiversity Conservation, Climate Change Mitigation and Improved Livelihoods: the Makira Forest Protected Area, Madagascar. none. Wildlife Conservation Society. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/translinks-2008/wildlife-conservation-society/ForestCarbonFinancingMakira_CaseStudy_WCS_2008.pdf

Michael Colby
USAID/E3/LTRM
Case study of the forest carbon and biodiversity project in Makira Forest, Madagascar. Sponsored by USAID, Wildlife Conservation Society, the Government of Madagascar and other partners have been working with local communities living in the Makira plateau in north-eastern Madagascar to establish a protected area which will be financed by the marketing and sale of CO2 emissions reductions credits. The funds from carbon sales, generated through the avoided deforestation of the Makira forest, will be used to finance the longterm conservation of the forests, improve community land stewardship and governance, and support sustainable livelihood practicesleading to improved household welfare. This study outlines the intensive community participation and capacity building process and key steps that have been taken to develop this novel and innovative community-based approach towards forest conservation and poverty reduction in one of the world’s most biologically rich and economically poor countries. Though some carbon was sold in the voluntary market as early as 2008, and a REDD+ project development document was submitted in 2012, the momentum of this project has been interrupted by the coup in Madagascar in January 2009.
Project overview document/gray literature, Site-based case study, Tool/methodology (e.g. legal analysis, value chain analysis, participatory methods, rapid assessment)
★★★★
Africa
Madagascar
northeast
USAID
Makira Forest Carbon and Biodiversity PES/REDD project
Biodiversity
Forest
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Relevant]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Relevant]
Invested in local organizations - [Relevant]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Relevant]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Relevant]n
Participatory Planning
Information/knowledge management technology
Land use planning
Land tenure securitization
Tree tenure rights
Payments for ecosystem services
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change
GIS/remote sensing
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

IRG; USAID; 2011. Peru Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Desktop Study. USAID. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/peru-climate-change-vulnerability-and-adaptation-desktop-study

Kelly Gibbons
This document describes and analyzes the variety of climate change risks for the different climactic regions of Peru including the Huasta reigon. It discusses the progress of climate change and how it is impacting NWP in the region and what steps have been make to try to mitigate the impact. It demonstrates how the climate change is affecting Nature which in turn hurts Wealth. It also sheds light on the fact that Power is the a major anvenue for dealing with climate change, but empowering local communities enough to influence national policies is difficult. Additionally, it shows how a NWP solution for climate change is difficult because the scope of the impact of climate chage is very different depending on the climactic region and policy makers will be hard pressed to find solutions that work in each region without negative ramifications in other regions.
Country-based case study
★★★★
Latin America and Caribbean - South America
Peru
Huasta
USAID
Biodiversity
Coastal Zone
Field Crops
Forest
Groundwater
Irrigation Water
Rain Water
Surface Water
Biodiversity
Watershed
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Participatory Planning
Information/knowledge management technology
Land use planning
Water rights
Water harvesting
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]

Ingram, J. Carter; Stevens, Todd; Clements, Tom; Hatchwell, Matthew; Krueger, Linda; Victurine, Ray; Holmes, Christopher; Wilkie, David; 2009. WCS REDD Project Development Guide. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/translinks-2009/wildlife-conservation-society/manual_reddprojectdevelopmentguide.pdf

Michael Colby
★★★★★

Iversen, Vegard; Chhetry, Birka; Francis, Paul; Gurung, Madhu; Kafle, Ghanendra; Pain, Adam; Seeley, Janet; 2005. High value forests, hidden economies and elite capture: Evidence from forest user groups in Nepal's Terai. Ecological Economics. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/high-value-forests-hidden-economies-and-elite-capture-evidence-from-forest-user-groups-in-nepals-terai

Kelly Gibbons
This paper argues that the poliy on decentralized forest management in Nepal, informed by experience from the Middle Hills, overlooks the complexity and conflictual potential of establishing effective and equitable user groups in the Terai. Our case study evidence from West-Central Terai suggests that the combination of high forest value and weak institutional control mechanisms creat opportunties for local elites to siphon off substantial shares of the benefits generated by valuable local forests. The rents created by autonomous FUG policies give rise to stark distributional biases, a scramble for control and institutional instability. They estimate the extent of elite capture and argue that institutional reform needs are intimately linked to controlling the hidden economy of forest user groups. This paper sheds light on why the Community forestry in the Terai has been met with such limited success. It argues that the opportunity costs associated with turning over the high value Terai forests to community forestry is high, so officials have no incentive to do it. And within CFUGs, powerful elite have the incentive to take control hindering NRM and creating an unequal system. This sheds some interesting light on the difficulties of NRM in areas of high value resources and on some of the challenges the NWP will have to overcome.
Journal article
★★★★★
Asia
Nepal
Forest
NTFPs
Timber
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Relevant]
Invested in local organizations - [Relevant]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Relevant]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Relevant]n
Participatory Planning
Information/knowledge management technology
Land use planning
Land tenure securitization
Tree tenure rights
Resource user groups
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Gender]
Environmental/productivity - [Household]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Gender]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Gender]
Governance/empowerment - [Household]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Jammeh, L.; 2008. Participatory Forestry in the Gambia. IASC. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/participatory-forestry-in-the-gambia

Brian Jones
Independent Consultant
Essentially the directorate of forestry in the Gambia has followed the NWP approach in developing participatory forest approaches, by focusing on rights over the forest, benefits from forest use and conesrvation measures. Data from the conference paper indicates successes on all three aspects. Importantly the paper empahsises the need for benefits to be earned by resources users and that the best incentives are produced from the benefits directly or indirectly derived by the communities from the forest and its products. He argues that this has a much better demonstration effect than indirect benefits derived from external assistance. The author also emphasises that community forestry is the initiation of a PROCESS of ecological, economic and socio-cultural transformation. this helps to illustrate the point that CBNRM can gain from far more emphasis on support to processes rather than achieving products when crafting donor support programmes. The paper also describes a process called Market Analysis and Development of Forest Products and Services, supported by FAO. This process importantly focuses on business planning and accessing markets as well as capacity building. Surprisingly many "enterprise development" initiatives in CBNRM are not based on business principles and market demand. They seem rather to be based on community project approaches and are supply driven instead of demand driven. This paper documents a process for avoiding this pitfall.
Country-based case study, Sectoral review, Tool/methodology (e.g. legal analysis, value chain analysis, participatory methods, rapid assessment) Conference paper
★★★
Africa
Africa - West
The Gambia
Biodiversity
Forest
NTFPs
Tourism
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)

Kerry Waylen; . Effect of Local Cultural Context on the Success of Community-Based Conservation Interventions. Conservation Biology. Society for Conservation Biology. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/effect-of-local-cultural-context-on-the-success-of-community-based-conservation-interventions

Shreya Mehta
IRG/Engility
Conservation interventions require evaluation to understand what factors predict success or failure. To date, there has been little systematic investigation of the effect of social and cultural context on conservation success, although a large body of literature argues it is important. This article investigates further if the social and cultural context influence conservation outcomes. It has been argued that the NWP framework and model should incorprate the social and cultural context into its framework and this article provides that evidence if it does exist or not. Results provide clear support for the arguments that conservation (and hence conservationists) needs a better understanding of and adjustment to the “community” in CBC
Journal article, Sectoral review, Other - enter below Social and Cultural context in Conservation
★★
Africa - Southern
Global
Aquaculture
Biodiversity
Fisheries
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Other
Other (Write In)
Considering Culture and Social context to conservation

Koontz, Ann; 2008. Conservation Marketing Equation: A Manual for Conservation and Development Professionals. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/translinks-2008/enterpriseworks-vita-relief-international/ConservationMarketingEquation_Manual_EWV_2008.pdf

Mike Colby
USAID
Tool/methodology (e.g. legal analysis, value chain analysis, participatory methods, rapid assessment)
★★★★★
Biodiversity
Coastal Zone
Forest
NTFPs
Tourism
Wildlife
harvested "natural products" of any type

Koontz, Ann; Dupuis, Steven; Treves, Adrian; Jones, Stephanie Michelle; Crowley, Helen; 2010. Conservation Certification and Product Branding-The Case of Wildlife Friendly Certification Featured November 7, 2010. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/translinks-2010/wildlife-conservation-society/eco-labeling-and-market-based-financing-of-wildlife-conservation

Michael Colby
Sectoral review
★★★★★
Agriculture
Biodiversity
Fodder
Forest
NTFPs
Tourism
Wildlife
Biodiversity

Mazambani, D.,; Dembetembe, P; 2010. Community Based natural Resource Management Stocktaking Assessment: Zimbabwe Profile. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/community-based-natural-resource-management-stocktaking-assessment-zimbabwe-profile

Brian Jones
Independent consultant
A review of CBNRM in Zimbabwe across the NWP themes. Particullary useful for showing how some CAMPFIRE areas have been resilient in the face of the country's political and economic upheavals where CBNRM principles have been best applied. However in general does not sufficiently address the impacts of Zimbabwe's economic problems on CBNRM.
Country-based case study, Comparative analysis of cases or tools
Africa
Africa - Southern
Biodiversity
Forest
NTFPs
Tourism
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Mock, Greg; Corcoran, Joseph; Hughes, Oliver; . The Power of Local Action: Lessons from 10 years of the Equator Prize. UNDP. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/the-power-of-local-action-lessons-from-10-years-of-the-equator-prize-1

Jon Anderson
An interesting review that examines over 120 initiatives and pulls out lessons learned. Addresses some of the NWP principles such as land tenure and local innovation.
Project overview document/gray literature, Comparative analysis of cases or tools
★★★
Global
Other (Write In)
covers and extensive range of resources
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Other (Write In)
variety
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Lessons learned (Success Story)

N/A; . La experiencia en la Cooperativa Integral Agricola Santa Maria Chipur, Sa'nimtaq'a R.L.. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/la-experiencia-en-la-cooperativa-integral-agricola-santa-maria-chipur-sanimtaqa-r.l

Kelly Gibbons
This document provides good insight into agricultural cooperatives in Guatemala and the benefits they can bring in the form of NWP as well as the challenges faced by cooperatives and their members. This document had testimonials from cooperative members and describes the founding and functioning of the cooperative in Santa Maria Chipur. There is a clear link between the cooperative and wealth and livelihoods of its members which in turn is connected to preserving Nature and their crops. There is also link demonstrated between the formation of cooperatives and Power as the cooperative's organization gives them more political power and attracts public services to the community.
Book/chapter
Latin America and Caribbean - Central America
Guatemala
Agriculture
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Relevant]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Relevant]
Invested in local organizations - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Value chain strengthening/conservation marketing
Participatory processes for social change
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Nations, James D.; Burwell, Bruce B.; Burniske, Gary R.; 1987. We did this ourselves- a case study of INAFOR/ CARE/Peace Corps soil conservation and forest management program, Republic of Guatemala. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/tools/community-based-natural-forest-management-USAID-Lessons-Learned/cbnfm/USAID-BDB-cd-2-data/we-did-this-ourselves-a-case-study-of-inafor-care-peace-corps-soil-conservation-and-forest-management-program-republic-of-guatemala

Tom Catterson
IRG
This document is a case study report about the Guatemalan program shared by INAFOR (the National Forestry Institute), the Peace Corps and CARE to promote soil conservation, agroforestry, on-farm tree planting, using food-for-work provided under PL 480. Most of the document addresses the experience of the program in using this food-for-work approach.
Project overview document/gray literature, Country-based case study, Evaluation
★★★
Latin America and Caribbean - Central America
Guatemala
ICCP
Agriculture
Field Crops
Forest
Soil Erosion
Soil Quality
Watershed
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Critical]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Accomplished]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Accomplished]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Accomplished]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Critical]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Accomplished]
Participatory Planning
Information/knowledge management technology
Land use planning
Farmer-to-farmer schools
Agroforestry, Food-for-Work
Environmental/productivity - [Household]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Environmental/productivity - [Household]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Environmental/productivity - [Household]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Naughton-Treves, Lisa, Day, Cathy 2012. Lessons about Land Tenure, Forest Governance and REDD+ Featured Jan 10, 2012. (related papers in World Development). University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Land Tenure Center. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/2011/land-tenure-center/ltfc-mgmt-workshop/lessons-on-land-tenure-forest-governance-and-redd

Michael Colby
USAID/E3/LTRM
This volume of case studies comprises one of two main publications resulting from the Oct. 21-22, 2011 Land Tenure and Forest Carbon Management Workshop hosted by the University of Wisconsin/Madison’s Land Tenure Center (LTC), Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, and Geography Dept. Contributed by an impressive array of researchers, NGOs, and other development partners (Land Tenure Center, Wildlife Conservation Society, Landesa, CIFOR, Cordillera Tropical Fundación, Ecolex, PACT, Community Forestry International, World Resources Institute), this combination of national- and community-level cases from Tanzania, Mozambique, Nepal, India, Cambodia, Laos, and Ecuador complement a set of research papers prepared simultaneously for a special issue of the journal World Development (2013).
Site-based case study, Country-based case study, Sectoral review
★★★★★
Africa
Africa - East
Africa - Southern
Asia
Asia - South
Asia - Southeast
Latin America and Caribbean - South America
Global
multiple
USAID, CIFOR, etc.
TransLinks
Forest
Forest Carbon
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Relevant]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Relevant]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Relevant]n
Participatory Planning
Information/knowledge management technology
Land use planning
Land tenure securitization
Tree tenure rights
Payments for ecosystem services
Resource user groups
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
GIS/remote sensing
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Nelson, F.; 2012. An analysis of international law, national legislation, judgements, and institutions as they interrelate with territories and areas conserved by indigenous peoples and local communities. Report No. 2. Africa Regional. . Natural Justice. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/an-analysis-of-international-law-national-legislation-judgements-and-institutions-as-they-interrelate-with-territories-and-areas-conserved-by-indigenous-peoples-and-local-communities.-report-no.-2.-africa-regional

Brian Jones
Independent Consultant
This synthesis report focuses on the legal recognition and rights over land and resources afforded to Indigenous peoples' and local communities' conserved territories and areas (ICCAs) in Senegal, Kenya anbd Namibia with data and observations from other African countries. It focuses therefore on the empowerment aspects of NWP from a legal perspective. the report concludes that the fundamental challenge to strengthening local communities’ abilities to conserve natural resources lies in the realm of land tenure. Although there have been widespread land tenure reform efforts since the early 1990s across much of Africa many of these reforms have not been implemented or deepened. the report also considers relationships between protected area aurthorities and ICCAs and concludes that these are still often characterised by conflicts over land and resource use and control.
Book/chapter, Regional case study, Comparative analysis of cases or tools
Africa
Africa - East
Africa - Southern
Africa - West
Biodiversity
Forest
NTFPs
Rangeland
Tourism
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Nelson, Fred 2008. Developing Alternative Frameworks for Community-based Conservation: Piloting Payments for Environmental Services (PES) in Tanzania's Simanjiro Plains. none. Wildlife Conservation Society. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/translinks-2008/wildlife-conservation-society/ConservationEasementsPES_CaseStudy_TanzaniaSimanjiroPlains_WCS_2008.pdf

Michael Colby
USAID/E3/LTRM
Case study on piloting payments for environmental services (PES-Biodiversity) in the Simanjiro Plains, Tanzania - The Simanjiro plains provide a key wet season dispersal area for wildebeest and zebra migrating from northern Tanzania’s Tarangire National Park. The plains lie within the boundaries of the lands of three villages occupied by Maasai pastoralists. Wildlife populations have declined substantially over the past two decades, largely as a result of illegal over-hunting and the spread of agricultural land uses in the area. Efforts to enlist local community support for wildlife conservation have, since the 1970s, been undermined by conflicts over land tenure and resource use. In order to address the deteriorating status of wildlife populations and their habitat on the Simanjiro plains, an alternative framework for community-based conservation was developed starting in 2005 through a payments for ecosystem services (PES) agreement. This agreement emerged from the collaboration of local communities with a diverse group of NGOs and private tourism companies, several of which have extensive and long-term experience in the area. The agreement built on customary pastoralist land use practices to build village-level incentives for wildlife conservation. The agreement has produced an important new framework for community-based conservation in Tanzanian village lands by overcoming existing institutional impediments to community involvement in wildlife conservation through a cost-effective and administratively simple PES structure. This case provides another significant variation on the Community-Based Wildlife Management paradigm in Africa, by adding conditional PES in a unique way: the tour operators never take their customers to visit the areas where communities are being compensated for adjusting their land management practices, but the system developed remains in the mutual interest of the tour operators, the tourists, and the communities nonetheless.
Project technical document (e.g. focusing on one or more aspects, such as technical approach, monitoring, application of a specific tool, etc), Site-based case study, Tool/methodology (e.g. legal analysis, value chain analysis, participatory methods, rapid assessment)
★★★★
Africa - East
Tanzania
Simanjiro/Tarangire
USAID, Sand County Foundation, Bradley Fund for the Environment
TransLinks
Biodiversity
Rangeland
Tourism
Whole Landscape
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Accomplished]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Critical]
Invested in local organizations - [Accomplished]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Critical]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Accomplished]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Critical]
Participatory Planning
Land use planning
Payments for ecosystem services
Devolution to communities
Managed grazing
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)

Nelson, Fred; Agrawal, Arun; 2008. Patronage or Participation? Community-based Natural Resource Management Reform in Sub-Saharan Africa. Development and Change. Blackwell. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/patronage-or-participation-community-based-natural-resource-management-reform-in-sub-saharan-africa-2

Jon Anderson
IRG/Engility
This is an insightful article that looks at wildlife based CBNRM across 7 African countries looking particularly at the devolution of rights over wildlife. Outcomes are predicted by patronage relationships where "high value resources coupled with weak insitutions and corruption create strong disincentives for devolution". The authors argue for a much more robust and refined understanding of the political-economic situation of CBNRM. They point out that neither donors nor local communities have played a role in the adoption of reforms.
Journal article
★★★★
Africa
Africa - East
Africa - Southern
Wildlife
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Critical]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Critical]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Paudel, Naya S.; Jana, Sudeep; Rai, Jailab; 2010. Protected areas and rights movements: The inadequacies of Nepal's participatory conservation. ForestAction. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/protected-areas-and-rights-movements-the-inadequacies-of-nepals-participatory-conservation

Kelly Gibbons
Over the past few decades, “participatory conservation” has been the hallmark of conservation initiatives in Nepal and worldwide. This paper highlights the limitations of participatory conservation in light of the resistance movements around protected areas management in Nepal. This paper draws from diverse cases and experiences of local resistance; grassroots social movements and civic actions and demonstrates the inadequacies of participatory interventions in addressing many legitimate concerns of indigenous peoples and local communities. The current legal and institutional spaces within the participatory modalities—despite their several promises—are too limited to enable local people to organise, consolidate and express their views, and thereby constrain their ability to influence the plans and programmes. Consequently, the local and indigenous people organise themselves outside the official spaces and frequently question the very essence of participatory policies. The paper then draws implications for protected area policies, legal reform as well as their democratic governance. This paper provides a good insight into the short comings of community forestry in Nepal. It outlines some of the challenges faced which are relavent to NWP. It shows how often the participatory approach has limited impact on Wealth and how Power is not always distributed equally depending on the social and cultural context. It also highlights that while Nature and Wealth can be mutually beneficial, there can also be a trade off between one and the other. (ie. pursuing improvements in Nature at the expense of Wealth.) It shows how important it is to strike a balance that allows for the economically beneficial exploitation of natural resources and for sustainable conservation of those same resources.
Regional case study, Sectoral review
★★★★
Asia
Nepal
Biodiversity
Forest
NTFPs
Timber
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Accomplished]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Relevant]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Relevant]
Invested in local organizations - [Relevant]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Relevant]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Relevant]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Relevant]n
Participatory Planning
Land use planning
Land tenure securitization
Tree tenure rights
Resource user groups
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Gender]
Environmental/productivity - [Household]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Gender]
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Gender]
Governance/empowerment - [Household]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Pitman, Nigel; 2011. Social and Biodiversity Impact Assessment (SBIA) Manual for REDD+ Projects Part 3 – Biodiversity Impact Assessment Toolbox. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/2011/forest-trends/social-and-biodiversity-impact-assessment-sbia-manual-for-redd-projects-part-3-2013-biodiversity-impact-assessment-toolbox

Michael Colby
Tool/methodology (e.g. legal analysis, value chain analysis, participatory methods, rapid assessment)
★★★★
Forest
Forest Carbon

Poteete, A.R.; 2009. Defining Political Community and Rights to Natural Resources in Botswana. Development and Change. Institute for Social Studies, the Hague. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/defining-political-community-and-rights-to-natural-resources-in-botswana

Brian Jones
Independent Consultant
Another useful examination of how CBNRM is embedded in politics at different levels. Poteete shows how both national level politics (and party politics) and ideology around national benefit from all resources affects government approaches to CBNRM and how Disctrict Councils seek to bring community-based organisations under their control. Poteete also shows how the lack of capacity at community level has helped open the way for recentralisation but points out that there is no comprehensive system in place to provide the sort of long-term support CBOs need in governance and financial management. Poteete found that CBNRM in Botswana does not link participation in conservation efforts to benefits from wildlife resources strongly enough to fully realize its potential for improving conservation. Its effectiveness has been limited further by the creation of multi-village CBOs with little connection to historical patterns of co-operation. These conclusions help to underpin the need for greater application of the NWP principles. Poteete makes useful points about the desirability of District governments managing local resources compared to groups of resources users. She suggests that district councils are not necessarily best placed to manage these resources as the District Councils are more accountable to residents of larger villages than to the people who live most closely with wildlife under the existing electoral system. This is a useful contribution to the debate about which level should be vested with rights over resources - local government or local communities.
Journal article, Country-based case study
★★★★
Botswana
Biodiversity
Tourism
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Pravat, Satyal; 2004. Country Profile Report: Forestry Sector in Nepal. Forests Monitor. Cambridge. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/country-profile-report-forestry-sector-in-nepal

Kelly Gibbons
This report is another good overview of the forestry sector in Nepal and its strengths and weaknesses. It discusses the political, social, and economic framework of Nepal's forestry sector as well as civil society, NGO, and international financial assistance involvement in the sector. It highlights Nepals forest policy and its evolution over the past 30 yrs into a system that promots CBNRM. It also discusses the forestry sector by region and some of the strengths and weaknesses of the CBNRM programs in each region from the highly successful results in the Mid-Hills region to the dissapointing resutls in the Terai forests. Again, it breaks down the social, institutional, and folicy framwork that compose Nepal's forestry sector illustrating the incorporation of many NWP inputs and their important impact on the success of CBNRM in Nepal.
Journal article, Country-based case study
★★★
Asia
Nepal
Biodiversity
Forest
NTFPs
Timber
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Relevant]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Relevant]
Invested in local organizations - [Relevant]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Relevant]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Relevant]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Relevant]n
Participatory Planning
Information/knowledge management technology
Land use planning
Land tenure securitization
Tree tenure rights
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Quazi, Shimona A.; Bushley, Bryan R.; Miles, Wendy B.; . Introduction: Participation and the collaborative management of protected areas in Bangladesh. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/introduction-participation-and-the-collaborative-management-of-protected-areas-in-bangladesh

TCatterson
IRG
Interesting document but only the Introductory Chapter of its larger publication. Nevertheless, it presents some of the theories about CBNRM in Bangladesh and how they will be tested. I could not find the rest of the document to see the other case studies.
Book/chapter, Country-based case study, Comparative analysis of cases or tools
★★
Asia - South
Bangladesh
Coastal Zone
Fisheries
Forest
Mangroves
Surface Water
Wetlands
Biodiversity
Storm Protection
Watershed
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Relevant]
Invested in local organizations - [Relevant]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Relevant]
Participatory Planning
Resource user groups
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Gender]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Gender]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]

Radachowsky, Jeremy; Ramos, Victor; McNab, Roan; Baur, Erick H.; Kazakov, Nikolay; 2012. Forest concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: A decade later. Forest Ecology and management. Elsevier. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/forest-concessions-in-the-maya-biosphere-reserve-guatemala-a-decade-later

Jon Anderson
Well researched article that looks carefully at community forest concessions - a couple of which have succeeded, a couple of which have failed and a number somewhere in between. Pulls out a series of lessons learned. Cites and agrees with five conditions for success: devolution of authority, technical and institutional capacity, economic viability and distribution, reconciliation between local and global interests, and resilience of ecological process and social institutions.
Journal article
★★★★
Latin America and Caribbean - Central America
Guatemala
Forest
Other (Write In)
NTFPs
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Relevant]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Relevant]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Radachowsky, Jeremy; Ramos, Victor; McNab, Roan; Baur, Erick H.; Kazakov, Nikolay; 2012. Forest concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: A decade later. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/forest-concessions-in-the-maya-biosphere-reserve-guatemala-a-decade-later

Thomas M. Catterson
IRG
Extremely useful and well organized review of ten years of experience with community based natural forest management in the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala. Covers all of the elements of NWP without ever citing the model. Excellent read, well organized and useful graphics help to make point clear.
Journal article, Site-based case study, Comparative analysis of cases or tools, Evaluation
★★★★
Latin America and Caribbean - Central America
Guatemala
Agriculture
Biodiversity
Forest
NTFPs
Timber
Whole Landscape
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Accomplished]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Critical]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Accomplished]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Critical]
Invested in local organizations - [Accomplished]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Accomplished]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Accomplished]
Participatory Planning
Information/knowledge management technology
Land use planning
Land tenure securitization
Tree tenure rights
Value chain strengthening/conservation marketing
Resource user groups
Devolution to communities
Economic/income generation - [Household]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]

Ratner, Blake D; 2006. Community Management by Decree? Lessons From Cambodia's Fisheries Reform. Society and Natural Resources. Taylor & Francis Group. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/community-management-by-decree-lessons-from-cambodias-fisheries-reform

GF Taylor
A useful look at two of the most important types of CBNRM in Cambodia. Recommendations are included in the areas of: ensuring that potential benefits are secured at the local level, building effective governance of CBNRM institutions, promoting pro-poor policy, adding value to natural resources through commercialization, and supporting institutional development and coordination. On Cambodia’s experiment with CBNRM in the fisheries sector, see also Tom Blomley, Prom Tola, Mam Kosal, Eam Dyna and Mark Dubois. March 2010. Review of Community Forestry and Community Fisheries in Cambodia. Report prepared for the Natural Resource Management and Livelihoods Programme 52p.
Journal article, Project technical document (e.g. focusing on one or more aspects, such as technical approach, monitoring, application of a specific tool, etc)
★★★★
Asia - Southeast
Cambodia
Biodiversity
Fisheries
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Accomplished]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Accomplished]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Ribot, Jesse C.; 2003. Democratic Decentralization of Natural Resources: Institutional Choice and Discretionary Power Transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa. Public Administration and Development. John Wiley & Sons. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/democratic-decentralization-of-natural-resources-institutional-choice-and-discretionary-power-transfers-in-sub-saharan-africa

Jon Anderson
IRG/Engility
This article argues that while democratic decentralization of natural resource management is theoretically useful it has rarely been attempted by central governments. It lays out areas of concern and 5 measures that might be useful: 1) focus on democratic local government first, 2) apply multiple accountability measures, 3) transfer powers before burdens, 4) transfer power before capacity building, and 5) adhere to a minimum standards model.
Journal article, Meta-analysis of literature
★★★★
Africa
Forest
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Critical]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Relevant]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Critical]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Critical]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Critical]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Relevant]n
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Critical]
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Richards, Michael; 2011. Social and Biodiversity Impact Assessment (SBIA) Manual for REDD+ Projects: Part 2 – Social Impact Assessment Toolbox. CCBA, Forest Trends, FFI, Rainforest Alliance. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/2011/forest-trends/social-and-biodiversity-impact-assessment-sbia-manual-for-redd-projects-part-2-2013-social-impact-assessment-toolbox

Mike Colby
USAID
Tool/methodology (e.g. legal analysis, value chain analysis, participatory methods, rapid assessment)
Africa
Asia
Latin America and Caribbean
Global
Forest
Forest Carbon
Participatory Planning
Payments for ecosystem services
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change

Richards, Michael; Panfil, Steven; 2011. Social and Biodiversity Impact Assessment (SBIA) Manual for REDD+ Projects: Part 1 Version 2 – Core Guidance for Project Proponents . CCBA, Forest Trends, FFI, Rainforest Alliance. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/2011/forest-trends/social-and-biodiversity-impact-assessment-sbia-manual-for-redd-projects-part-1-version-2-2013-core-guidance-for-project-proponents

Mike Colby
USAID
Tool/methodology (e.g. legal analysis, value chain analysis, participatory methods, rapid assessment)
★★★★★
Forest
Forest Carbon
Payments for ecosystem services

Roe, D.; Nelson, F.; Sandbrook, C.; 2009. Community management of natural resources in Africa: Impacts, experiences and future directions. . IIED, London.. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/community-management-of-natural-resources-in-africa-impacts-experiences-and-future-directions-1

Brian Jones
Independent consultant
Excellent and comprehensive review of CBNRM across Africa. Covers impacts on Empowerment; Economics and Environment i.e. NWP. Very useful because of the analysis which identifies and compares different types of CBNRM across the regions in Africa. Has a very useful chapter on opportunities and challenges which aims to find a way beyond the devolution impasse.
Book/chapter, Comparative analysis of cases or tools, Meta-analysis of literature
★★★★
Africa
Africa - Central
Africa - East
Africa - Southern
Africa - West
Biodiversity
Forest
NTFPs
Rangeland
Timber
Tourism
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Singh, B.K.; Chapagain, D.P.; . Trends in forest ownership, forest resources tenure and institutional arrangements: are they contributing to better forest management and poverty reduction? Community and leasehold forestry for the poor: Nepal case study. Understanding Forest Tenure in South and Southeast Asia. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/trends-in-forest-ownership-forest-resources-tenure-and-institutional-arrangements-are-they-contributing-to-better-forest-management-and-poverty-reduction-community-and-leasehold-forestry-for-the-poor-nepal-case-study

Kelly Gibbons
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between forest resource tenure and forest management, with a focus on the implications for poverty alleviation. The term “tenure” is used here to imply a bundle of rights that are recognized by law and custom and that a person, a group of people or a private or public entity holds in land or trees. The paper seeks to examine the nature of these rights, their origin, their operationalization and the ways they relate to other activities, including the planting, conservation and utilization of trees. This study looks closely at the relationship between Nature and Wealth and how the Power systems in Nepal are helping or hindering the improvement of both. It looks as the history of legislation and it's effect on the incomes of rural forest dependent communities. It provides a very good case for the importance and interconnectivity of all three aspects of NWP and posits some good reccomendations for making community forestry in Nepal more effective at improving households' incomes (wealth).
Book/chapter
★★★★
Asia
Nepal
Biodiversity
Forest
NTFPs
Timber
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Critical]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Critical]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Critical]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Critical]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Critical]
Invested in local organizations - [Critical]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Critical]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Critical]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Critical]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Critical]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Critical]
Participatory Planning
Information/knowledge management technology
Land use planning
Land tenure securitization
Tree tenure rights
Resource user groups
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

Sokhun, H.E. Ty; Ratanakoma, Long; Bradley, Amanda; Durschinger, Leslie; . Community Forestry REDD Project Oddar Meanchey Cambodia. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/community-forestry-redd-project-oddar-meanchey-cambodia

GF Taylor
Descriptive overview of the first REDD project in Cambodia. Initially designed by Community Forestry International (CFI), the project is a collaboration between the Forestry Administration, PACT and Terra Global Capital. It involves 13 community forestry groups in 58 villages protecting 67,783 hectares of forest.
★★★★
Asia - Southeast
Cambodia
Biodiversity
Forest

The Katoomba Group; Forest Trends; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); 2008. Payments for Ecosystem Services: Getting Started - A Primer. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/translinks-2008/forest-trends/PESPrimer_Report_KatoombaForestTrends_2008.pdf

Michael Colby
Tool/methodology (e.g. legal analysis, value chain analysis, participatory methods, rapid assessment)
Biodiversity
Forest
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Watershed

Tschinkel, Henry; 2001. What really works in watershed management? Some lessons learned for Guatemala. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/tools/community-based-natural-forest-management-USAID-Lessons-Learned/cbnfm/USAID-BDB-cd-2-data/guatemala-watershed.pdf

Tom Catterson
IRG
This document is valuable for those interested in NWP because it is a concise summary of the wide experience of a seasoned veteran of techical assistance to natural resources management in Guatemala, who addresses, albeit without naming NWP, all of the facets and many of the principles of the principles.
Project overview document/gray literature, Project technical document (e.g. focusing on one or more aspects, such as technical approach, monitoring, application of a specific tool, etc), Country-based case study, Sectoral review, Evaluation
★★★★
Latin America and Caribbean - Central America
Guatemala
USAID
Agriculture
Biodiversity
Forest
Soil Erosion
Biodiversity
Watershed
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Invested in local organizations - [Relevant]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Relevant]
Participatory Planning
Land use planning
Payments for ecosystem services
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Gender]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)

USAID, Guatemala 2011. 48 Cantones de Totonicapan. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/48-cantones-de-totonicapan-1

Thomas Catterson
IRG
What is unique about the document and the indigenous organization it describes is that it has been in existence since colonial times. Both the organization and the forests they are protecting have survived centuries of changes and pressures. This is a situation where all three major principles of NWP are manifest but perhaps over the years, the cultural aspect has become more important and indeed the driving force for the continuing sustainability of the forest and the people who are the 48 Cantones de Totonicapan.
Project overview document/gray literature, Site-based case study
★★★
Latin America and Caribbean - Central America
Guratemala
Totonicapan
USAID
48 Cantones de Totonicapan
Biodiversity
Forest
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Watershed
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Relevant]
Invested in local organizations - [Relevant]
Invested in local organizations - [Accomplished]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Accomplished]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Critical]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Accomplished]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Relevant]n
Participatory Planning
Information/knowledge management technology
Land use planning
Water rights
Payments for ecosystem services
Participatory processes for social change
Water harvesting
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]

USAID; NRIC; 2005. USAID and Sustainable Tourism: Meeting Development Objectives. https://dev.rmportal.net/library/content/tools/sustainable-tourism-tools/usaid-and-sustainable-tourism-meeting-development-objectives

Michael Colby
Sectoral review
Africa
Asia
Latin America and Caribbean
Middle East
Eastern Europe
Global
Biodiversity
Coastal Zone
Coral Reefs
Tourism
Biodiversity

Winrock International; Ford Foundation; 2002. Emerging Issues in Community Forestry in Nepal. Winrock International and the Ford Foundation. https://dev.rmportal.net/groups/cbnrm/cbnrm-literature-for-review-discussion/emerging-issues-in-community-forestry-in-nepal

Kelly Gibbons
This study examines the impact of community forestry in the Terai, Mid-Hills, and High Mountains as well as leasehold forestry, watershed management, buffer zone management, and service providers in the forestry sector. Researchers used semistructured interviews, extensive interviews with various stakeholders, participatory rural appraisal, secondary sources, and published materials. The study provides a good overview of the evolution of community forestry in Nepal including many stepst included in the NWP framework. It highlights the success of community forestry, but also brings up issues such as minimal impacts in some areas on the Wealth portion of NWP, and the failure of the Nature portion in other areas such as the Terai. Issues of inequality of distribution of resources amongst social classes, and in some cases the exclusion of certain user groups and women is discussed.
Project technical document (e.g. focusing on one or more aspects, such as technical approach, monitoring, application of a specific tool, etc), Regional case study
★★★
Asia
Nepal
Biodiversity
Forest
NTFPs
Timber
Biodiversity
Forest Carbon
Improved information and knowledge management systems - [Relevant]
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Relevant]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Relevant]
Built capacity and invested in human resources - [Relevant]
Promoted cost effective technical advisory and intermediary services - [Relevant]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Relevant]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Relevant]
Invested in local organizations - [Relevant]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Relevant]
Assured that resource managers have access to NRM means and benefits - [Relevant]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Relevant]
Procedural rights for all people, especially vulnerable or marginalized groups - [Relevant]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Relevant]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Relevant]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Relevant]n
Participatory Planning
Information/knowledge management technology
Land use planning
Land tenure securitization
Tree tenure rights
Resource user groups
Devolution to local governments
Devolution to communities
Participatory processes for social change
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Environmental/productivity - [Yes]
Economic/income generation - [Yes]
Governance/empowerment - [Yes]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
Lessons learned (Cautionary Tale)