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Ag and Rural Development Smart List

by Jean Brennan last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:06 AM
This smart list searched for the text "agriculture" or "rural development" appears.
File Transaction Costs Analysis of Maize and Cotton Marketing in Zambia and Tanzania by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jun 13, 2013 07:34 PM
Agriculture, Natural Resources and Rural Enterprise, Office of Sustainable Development, Bureau for Africa, U.S. Agency for International Development, Technical Paper No. 105, June 1999.
File A Global Assessment of Community Based Natural Resource Management: Addressing the Critical Challenges of the Rural Sector by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jul 31, 2014 02:19 PM
CBNRM: AN ASSESSMENT WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE FUTURE. Rural development issues are critical not only for the rural areas themselves but also for addressing pressing global concerns of food security (FS), climate change, biodiversity conservation, poverty reduction, provision of environmental goods and services, and good governance. Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) has been a rural development strategy for over 30 years. This paper has a two-fold objective: to assess the CBNRM experience in order to improve the performance of CBNRM itself, and to evaluate the lessons learned from CBNRM for critical issues – especially food security and climate change. Featured June, 2013
File A GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF COMMUNITY BASED NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: by Shreya Mehta — last modified Feb 01, 2014 02:34 PM
Rural development issues are critical not only for the rural areas themselves but also for addressing pressing global concerns of food security (FS), climate change, biodiversity conservation, poverty reduction, provision of environmental goods and services, and good governance. Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) has been a rural development strategy for over 30 years. This paper has a two-fold objective: to assess the CBNRM experience in order to improve the performance of CBNRM itself, and to evaluate the lessons learned from CBNRM for critical issues – especially food security and climate change. CBNRM involves defined groups of local people collaborating on utilization and regulating use of natural resources. CBNRM is an approach to empowering rural communities with the knowledge, skills, and authority to sustainably manage natural resources (e.g., wildlife, rangelands, forests, fish, water, etc.). Successful CBNRM initiatives require sustainable natural resource management; benefit streams (financial, social, and economic) that exceed costs; and good governance. Although it is difficult to identify predictable sequences and blueprints for success, many principles of “good” CBNRM have been identified. Each program has its own historical and cultural context and that influence success. Adaptive management and a systems approach, to accommodate the interplay between the realities of the field and the application of principles, are needed. The principles, when applied in a rigorous, integrated, and systematic fashion, greatly improve the chances of successful CBNRM. The paper enumerates a range of these principles and cases where they have been applied with good results. A typology, from transformational to extractive, is presented as an informal tool to assist in the analysis of cases. There are many constraints – technical, economic, cultural, and governance-related – that impede success. A number are presented here with suggestions for overcoming them. Not all constraints are equal, however. A major common constraint is the lack of an appropriate rights framework, often combined with institutional arrangements that are complex, time consuming and costly for rural people. Communities are often put at a disadvantage because they are assigned management “rights” over low value resources that have no other claimants. The ability of CBNRM programs to have significant impacts on the economic growth of rural communities depends to a large extent on the value of the resource base, the distribution of rights over those resources, and the functioning of markets. These are not always aligned in the favor of local communities. CBNRM programs need to systematically analyze these elements along with transaction costs and opportunity costs, in order to understand the incentives and viability of CBNRM programs. Unfortunately, because they involve vested interests and politics, governance and rights constraints may be easier to identify than to change. The assessment revealed interesting examples of “collateral success,” the sometimes hidden improvements in livelihoods and the environment that occur in parallel or tangentially to the main objective of the CBNRM initiative. Collateral success, sometimes as important to local people as success at achieving the initial objective, stems from communities and groups applying the tools, institutions, and methods of CBNRM (such as mechanisms for coordination, planning, rulemaking and sanctions, economies of scale, partnerships, capacity building, advocacy and marketing, etc.) to other resource activities – particularly ones where communities have secure rights, such as livestock and agriculture. The West Gate Conservancy in Kenya, for example, has used the tools and capacity built for wildlife and ecotourism to better manage livestock through group herding, rotational grazing, range improvement, and better marketing. Local communities can be ingenious in their use of the CBNRM tools made X A GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF COMMUNITY BASED NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT available to them. Innovative and adaptive, monitoring and evaluation systems are needed to capture this creativity. Collateral success shows the importance of the CBNRM principles and best practices for the pressing challenges of food security and climate change. The critical threats of food shortages, insecurity, and climate change underline the urgency of improving agriculture and natural resources management. The principles, and the mechanisms, institutions, and tools of CBNRM can improve the performance of other rural sub-sectors and will be key to climate-smart agriculture, community-based adaptation, and rural resilience.
File Oil palm expansion transforms tropical landscapes and livelihoods by Shreya Mehta — last modified Apr 07, 2013 07:56 PM
Oil palm is a highly profitable crop adapted to the humid tropics and the area devoted to this crop is likely to expand significantly in the future. It has many environmentally favourable attributes over its full life cycle. When well managed it has a positive carbon balance and when grown in a landscape mosaic it can play a role in biodiversity conservation. It has driven rapid economic growth in several tropical developing countries and contributed to the alleviation of rural poverty. Abuses during periods of rapid estate expansion into areas of natural forest and onto the lands of poor rural communities have led to criticism by environmental and social activists. With good governance oil palm can make valuable contributions to development and the resulting prosperity may free people to invest in better environmental practices.
File Strengthening natural resource institutions in Africa - applying social learning to reconciling poverty reduction and environmental management by Shreya Mehta — last modified Jan 10, 2013 07:32 AM
In the past two decades social and political changes in Africa have unmasked the underlying complexity and pluralism of natural resource management landscapes and exposed the untenable nature of linear, centralized technocratic approaches. Institutional pluralism as both reality and approach has arisen to address complexity in natural resource management by attempting to negotiate and accommodate contradictory interests and knowledge. Management increases in complexity as the geographic scale and the scope of problem situations expand and competing and conflicting stakeholder interests intensify in response to threats of appropriation, scarcity or deterioration. New institutional arrangements face a critical challenge in balancing poverty reduction, environmental sustainability and equity decision criteria in the face of uncertain and changing relationships within complex adaptive social and ecological systems. An initiative to assess lessons learned from more than 20 years of development in rural Africa reveals that social learning is vital in pluralistic settings, enabling joint institutional capacity to adapt and innovate. Drawing from the cases and from literature on social learning a practical typology is proposed for tailoring the choice and design of social learning methods to situations that are framed by varying levels of complexity and different governance regimes. The paper describes characteristics and applications of social learning in institutional strengthening, and examines implications for reconciling poverty reduction and environmental management in Africa.
File Forests, Poverty and equity in Africa: new perspectives on policy and practice by Shreya Mehta — last modified Jan 10, 2013 07:32 AM
This paper places forestry in the larger context of rural development and therefore in the current debates on poverty and inequality. While Africa has high levels of natural and human capital it is the poorest and most unequal region in the world. In order for natural assets to contribute to environmental, economic and empowerment outcomes four principle interlinked changes are needed: 1) Improve the recognition of the fundamental role of natural resources in economic growth of poor countries and poor populations and in the development of democracies and good governance; 2) Better distribute resource rights, both property and procedural, giving the poor greater security, access and control; 3) Develop and implement frameworks, regulations and enforcement to assure that natural resource markets work for the poor; 4) Redefine the role of science and technology, and associated planning and institutions.
File Capitalisation and sharing of experiences on the interaction between forest policies and land use by Shreya Mehta — last modified Jan 22, 2013 02:22 PM
More productive and sustainable use of sloping land and community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) are being recognised increasingly as major options in a range of natural resource sectors in Asia. CBNRM is also recognised as a useful mechanism in cross-cutting strategies; for example in poverty reduction initiatives, environmental management, and rural development. The workshop held in Godavari, near Kathmandu, Nepal, from 26-28 January 2005, brought together over 60 participants; they included policy-makers, project implementers, and representatives of local communities from Bhutan, China, India, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand; and representatives from two donor agencies – the Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC) and German Technical Cooperation (GTZ)—and three international organisations – the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), the Regional Community Forestry Training Centre for Asia and the Pacific (RECOFTC), and the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) – to share the lessons learned from community forestry in Nepal and to explore opportunities for using them in other countries and for other natural resource types.
File Scaling up in agriculture, rural development, and nutrition by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:47 AM
Taking successful development interventions to scale is critical if the world is to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and make essential gains in the fight for improved agricultural productivity, rural incomes, and nutrition. How to support scaling up in these three areas, however, is a major challenge. This collection of policy briefs is designed to contribute to a better understanding of the experience to date and the lessons for the future.
File Nature, Wealth, and Power: Emerging Best Practice for Revitalizing Rural Africa by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 10:05 AM
While the fate of Africa’s natural resources cannot be separated from the broader context of economic and development challenges, neither can Africa’s economic and development future be separated from the management of its natural resources. Building on lessons learned from more than 20 years of natural resource–based development in rural Africa, this document presents principles and action steps that can serve as a guide to investment there.
File From Under Their Feet: A Think Piece On The Gender Dimensions Of Land Grabs In Africa. by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:49 AM
This paper was commissioned by ActionAid and serves as a think-piece to build our understanding of the gendered implications of the recent wave of large-scale land acquisitions and investments, particularly in Africa. It aims to provide a basis for further development of policy proposals and recommendations that address the issue from a developmental and gender equality perspective. Understanding the implications for rural women’s land rights and rights to development and a livelihood is essential for the design of meaningful policy demands that tackle negative impacts of large-scale land acquisitions and actually work for women.
Putting Local Wealth to Work in Ethiopia by Stephanie Grosser — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:46 AM
Frontlines, May/June 2012 | ETHIOPIA, Abebaw Gessese is a poultry farm owner in the rural town of Mojo, a few hours south of Ethiopia’s capital. Poultry farming, however, wasn’t always Gessese’s profession. He majored in accounting at Addis Ababa University and spent a decade working in the Development Bank of Ethiopia before deciding to take the risk that every entrepreneur must take: giving up the security of a constant paycheck to pursue a dream.
File Presentation - REDD+ Implementation in Vietnam - Current Status and the Way Forwards (audio) by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 12:51 PM
Presentation by Pham Minh Thoa, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam given at the Southeast Asia Katoomba Meeting - Katoomba XVII Taking the Lead: Payments for Ecosystem Services, June 23-24, 2010 held in Hanoi, Vietnam. Presentation describes political commitments of Vietnam on REDD+, progress of REDD+ related activities in Vietnam, the key challenges and appropriate approach, the principles for REDD+ strategy and the key next steps toward REDD+ readiness.
File Opening Remarks - Virginia Palmer, USAID Vietnam (audio) by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 12:51 PM
Katoomba XVII: Day One - opening address by Cao Duc Phat, Minister, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) given at the Southeast Asia Katoomba Meeting - Katoomba XVII Taking the Lead: Payments for Ecosystem Services, June 23-24, 2010 held in Hanoi, Vietnam. Remarks discuss the the important roles PES and REDD play, particularly in poverty reduction, biodiversity conservation, and climate change mitigation and outlines Vietnam's past and current participation in REDD and PES while explaining Vietnam's role as a pilot program for REDD.
File Opening Remarks - Cao Duc Phat, Minister, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) (audio) by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 12:51 PM
Katoomba XVII: Day One - opening address by Cao Duc Phat, Minister, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) given at the Southeast Asia Katoomba Meeting - Katoomba XVII Taking the Lead: Payments for Ecosystem Services, June 23-24, 2010 held in Hanoi, Vietnam. Remarks discuss the the important roles PES and REDD play, particularly in poverty reduction, biodiversity conservation, and climate change mitigation and outlines Vietnam's past and current participation in REDD and PES while explaining Vietnam's role as a pilot program for REDD.
File ST9. Powering Tourism - Electrification And Efficiency Options For Rural Tourism Facilities by Joseph Badash — last modified Jan 10, 2013 08:02 AM
Powering Tourism provides information to help tourism professionals understand and evaluate the range of options for meeting their off-grid energy needs, highlighting efficient and sustainable use of energy. The guide provides a seven-step approach to guide the reader through the process of creating a reliable and affordable energy system by working with staff and visitors, equipment vendors, installers, financial institutions, and energy service providers. This manual is from a set of nine courses on Sustainable Tourism that have been developed by George Washington University as a result of compiling the lessons and best practices from the USAID Global Sustainable Tourism Alliance (GSTA) program, and other tourism development experiences. The courses train students, practitioners, donor agency representatives, and others working in related fields to understand and develop tourism and its role in international development. All the course materials are public access and also can be found inside the USAID NRM&D Learning Management Center. Your registration in these courses will allow you to actively participate in discussions of the material, and to take quizzes to check yourself for understanding at the end of each course. Each of the nine courses are offered free on a non-academic credit basis and offer a Certificate of Completion from USAID. Participants may take these courses to build your own knowledge of the field of tourism and development.The target audience for this manual, Powering Tourism - Electrification And Efficiency Options For Rural Tourism Facilities, includes professionals working on tourism-related projects in developing countries, including staff from donor and government agencies, non-governmental organizations, consulting firms, universities, businesses, and other entities.
File ST5. Sustainable Tourism Enterprise Development - A Business Planning Approach by Joseph Badash — last modified Jan 10, 2013 08:02 AM
Sustainable tourism enterprises confront the challenge to contribute to job creation, biological and cultural diversity conservation. The power of sustainable tourism as a development tool lies in that these philanthropic investments improve tourism products, differentiate and add value in the eyes of the consumer, and strengthen the enterprise itself. These unique needs and opportunities are most prevalent in developing countries, in rural and indigenous communities, and in parks and protected areas that struggle to balance conservation goals with basic necessities of local populations. For these reasons, this toolkit was written with these conditions and local stakeholders in mind. This manual is from a set of nine courses on Sustainable Tourism that have been developed by George Washington University as a result of compiling the lessons and best practices from the USAID Global Sustainable Tourism Alliance (GSTA) program, and other tourism development experiences. The courses train students, practitioners, donor agency representatives, and others working in related fields to understand and develop tourism and its role in international development. All the course materials are public access and also can be found inside the USAID NRM&D Learning Management Center. Your registration in these courses will allow you to actively participate in discussions of the material, and to take quizzes to check yourself for understanding at the end of each course. Each of the nine courses are offered free on a non-academic credit basis and offer a Certificate of Completion from USAID. Participants may take these courses to build your own knowledge of the field of tourism and development. The target audience for this manual, Sustainable Tourism Enterprise Development - A Business Planning Approach , includes professionals working on tourism-related projects in developing countries, including staff from donor and government agencies, non-governmental organizations, consulting firms, universities, businesses, and other entities.
File Presentation - REDD+ Implementation in Vietnam - Current Status and the Way Forwards by LiLing Choo — last modified Jan 10, 2013 12:50 PM
Presentation by Pham Minh Thoa, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam given at the Southeast Asia Katoomba Meeting - Katoomba XVII Taking the Lead: Payments for Ecosystem Services, June 23-24, 2010 held in Hanoi, Vietnam. Presentation describes political commitments of Vietnam on REDD+, progress of REDD+ related activities in Vietnam, the key challenges and appropriate approach, the principles for REDD+ strategy and the key next steps toward REDD+ readiness.
2010 Southeast Asia Katoomba Meeting XVII (Hanoi, Vietnam) by LiLing Choo — last modified Jan 10, 2013 12:51 PM
June 23‐24, 2010, Hanoi, Vietnam - Workshop entitled "Katoomba XVII: Taking the Lead: Payments for Ecosystem Services in Southeast Asia" was hosted by Forest Trends, the Katoomba Group, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE), United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and Winrock International, and was made possible by support from USAID through the TransLinks Cooperative Agreement.
2010/6 South East Asia Katoomba Meeting XVII- Taking the Lead: Payments for Ecosystem Services in Southeast Asia (Hanoi, Vietnam) by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 11, 2013 01:07 PM
June 23‐24, 2010, Hanoi, Vietnam - Workshop entitled "Katoomba XVII: Taking the Lead: Payments for Ecosystem Services in Southeast Asia" was hosted by Forest Trends, the Katoomba Group, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) of Vietnam, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) of Vietnam, United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and Winrock International, and was made possible by support from USAID through the TransLinks Cooperative Agreement.
2010/6b South East Asia Katoomba Meeting XVII Workshop Side Event - Coastal Management, Mangroves and Carbon Sequestration (Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam) by Rose Hessmiller — last modified Jan 10, 2013 10:03 AM
June 25-27, 2010, Xuan Thuy National Park, Giao Thuy District, Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam. The event was a joint initiative of Mangroves for the Future, Forest Trends, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) of Vietnam, and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) of Vietnam, as a contribution to the Katoomba XVII Meeting: Taking the Lead: Payments for Ecosystem Services in Southeast Asia held in Hanoi, Vietnam on June 23‐24, 2010.
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