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Ag and Rural Development Smart List

by Jean Brennan last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:06 AM
This smart list searched for the text "agriculture" or "rural development" appears.
File Community-Based Integrated Land and Water Management: Case Studies and Lessons Learned from Africa by Carmen Tedesco — last modified Jan 10, 2013 03:20 PM
In most of Africa integrated management of both land and water is needed to sustain livelihood systems. Water needs to be collected, husbanded and led appropriately to fields and crops or to animals. Land based resources, soil and vegetation/crops have also to be carefully managed. The status of one affects that of the other. While this is instinctive and obvious to the farmer and pastoralist, it’s not always so clear to officials in sectorally organized central ministries or departments, or even in the sectorally oriented sections of development agencies and NGOs, either in the capital city or in local offices. There are many lessons to be learned from the inappropriately skewed development of one resource in relation to the other. Fortunately, there are also lessons to be learned from examples of effective integrated development in a community setting of resource systems linking land, water, and the biological resources they produce. This document draws upon a number of case studies of Community-Based Integrated Land and Water Management (CBILWM) in Africa, and experience with different approaches to rural development, to offer guidelines for effective CBILWM. (INCI) The document provides the following: • A brief background to development agency initiatives in integrated land and water management • An analytical summary of the current scientific thinking on approaches to this topic • Eight case studies of local CBILWM experience in Africa • Some lessons learned from scientific, agency, and practical experiences to date.
File Community Partnerships for Sustainable Resource Management (COMPASS II) Annual Report 2005 by Sarah Schmidt — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:41 AM
USAID/Malawi created the Natural Resources Management and Environmental Support Program (NATURE) in 1995 to increase the sustainable use, conservation, and management of natural resources in Malawi. This non-project assistance program supported development of an environmental policy and legislative framework that encouraged community management of natural resources. Accomplishments in the fisheries, forestry, and wildlife sectors, as well as more general environmental management, led to an expanded role for the Malawi Agroforestry Extension Project (MAFE; 1992-2002), and establishment in 1999 of the Community Partnerships for Sustainable Resource Management (COMPASS) program. COMPASS began as a conservation-oriented effort aimed at sustainable use of natural resources, expanding awareness of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) and supporting the Government of Malawi to implement a policy framework conducive to expansion of CBNRM. A new Country Strategic Plan for USAID/Malawi for the period 2001—2005 placed the CBNRM support activities under a new Strategic Objective (SO) for “Sustainable increases in rural income.”
File Collective Action and Property Rights for Sustainable Development by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 02:38 PM
Millions of rural poor people in developing countries depend on natural resources—farmland and rangeland, fishing waters, forests—for their livelihoods. But whether they can use these resources sustainably to climb out of poverty often depends on the institutions that govern resource use—property rights and collective action. A multiplicity of property rights and collective action arrangements exist around the globe, and researchers have learned numerous lessons about what kinds of arrangements work best under what conditions. Making property rights and collective action work for the poor is not as simple as issuing new land titles or mindlessly applying standards that have worked elsewhere. Instead, it requires a detailed understanding of local resource conditions and social relationships, among other factors. This collection of briefs draws on a wide body of research conducted through the Systemwide Program on Collective Action and Property Rights (CAPRi) of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). It describes the complex issues surrounding property rights and collective action that policymakers and development professionals must understand and address if they are to successfully promote sustainable and pro-poor management of natural resources. We are grateful to editors Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Monica Di Gregorio, as well as all of the contributors, for their insights on this crucial topic.
File Better livelihoods for poor people: The Role of Land Policy by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:41 AM
Land policy, land rights and land reform have a critical bearing on economic development and poverty reduction in both rural and urban areas of the developing world. But land issues are often complex and politically difficult. For this reason they may be neglected. This draft Issues Paper seeks to promote discussion about the importance of land in poverty reduction strategy processes, in different regions of the word and across different sectors. The draft has been prepared following a series of regional workshops on land policy sponsored by the World Bank, in which DFID participated, and takes account comments received through this process.
File Case Studies on Successful Southern African NRM Initiatives and Their Impacts on Poverty and Governance: Zimbabwe - Masoka and Gairezi by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:41 AM
This report by IUCN/FRAME evaluates the CAMPFIRE initiative in Zimbabwe and its impacts on governance and poverty. CAMPFIRE was designed by the then Department of National Parks & Wild Life Management (DNPWLM, now the Parks & Wildlife Management Authority, PWMA) in the mid 1980s (Martin 1986). It is a long-term programmatic approach to rural development that uses wildlife and other natural resources as a mechanism for promoting devolved rural institutions and improved governance and livelihoods (Child et al 2003).
File Southern African NRM Initiatives and Their Impact on Poverty and Governance: Malawi by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:41 AM
This IUCN/FRAME report evaluates community based natural resource management in Malawi using the case of Bwanje Environmental Rural Development Organization (BERDO) in Ntcheu District, Malawi and Kam'mwamba Sustainable Management of Indigenous Forests (SMIF) Project in Mwanza/Neno Districts.
File Community-Based Resource Management, Rural Livelihoods, and Environmental Sustainability: Botswana by Carmen Tedesco — last modified Jan 10, 2013 03:29 PM
This report examines the impact of community-based natural resource management projects in Botswana, focusing on the communities of Tswapong hills and Sankuyo. The paper reports that CBNRM indicators show that the overall development impact of community-based programs is limited. Around 1.2 percent of the adult population in CBNRM areas is employed through CBOs or joint venture partnerships. The CBNRM benefits amount to a modest amount of around P420 per person per year. However, the report also notes that CBNRM programs have grown rapidly over the past two decades and have diversified their natural resource base to include wildlife, veld products, tourism, rangelands, and rural development. (IUCN/FRAME)
This IUCN/FRAME report focuses on three economic aspects of CBNRM approaches in southern Africa. These are the socioeconomic benefits of CBNRM and contributions to rural livelihoods, the impact on poverty and food security and the comparison of CBNRM with other land use and development options such as agriculture.
File Conservation Marketing Equation: A Manual for Conservation and Development Professionals by Portal Web Editor — last modified Feb 20, 2013 09:49 PM
The Conservation Marketing Equation manual is designed as a decision support tool to be used by an individual or project team whose goal is to better understand product development and marketing that promotes conservation and social equity. As a decision support tool, the manual is intended to assist conservation and development professionals in choosing business opportunities (products or services) that conserve biodiversity while reducing poverty for marginalized rural people. The assumption is that the proposed opportunity needs to be financially sustainable and this tool provides specific information and product worksheets to assess product market readiness. The manual allows you to prioritize your product development efforts in the areas in which you lack information, and aims to provide valuable insight on where to find this information. The examples used throughout the text incorporate actual product development and marketing lessons from a decade of field work by EnterpriseWorks/VITA and its partners in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
File Senegal USFS IP Trip Report: Development of Procedural Handbook for Natural Resource Management Plans for Rural Communities and Community Forest Management; Nov 06 | French Version by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:57 AM
US Forest Service Technical Assistance: Development of Procedural Handbook for Natural Resource Management Plans for Rural Communities and Community Forest Management, Senegal | French Version
File Senegal USFS IP Trip Report: Development of a Procedural Handbook for Natural Resource Management Plans for Rural Communities and Community Forest Management; Nov 06 by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:56 AM
US Forest Service Technical Assistance: Development of a Procedural Handbook for Natural Resource Management Plans for Rural Communities and Community Forest Management, Senegal
File Decentralisation and forest management in LA by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 04:24 PM
The particular characteristics of natural resources make the decentralisation of their management to elected local governments even more complex than the decentralisation of services and infrastructure. Nevertheless, natural resources are equallyimportant to rural development concerns in the Third World. Numerous countries have begun to implement policies for some form of decentralisation involving natural resources and the environment, and many local governments are already making decisions that affect the future of local resources. This article reviews experiences with decentralisation of forest management in Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Based on those experiences, it proposes a working model for more effective decentralisation strategies. The model addresses the legal structure for decentralised forest management and relevant variables that define the local decision-making sphere, as well as key mediating factors that also affect outcomes. Most of these variables, even in the local sphere, offer important sites for policy and aid intervention.&nbsp
File Counting on the Environment by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:11 AM
Environmental income is defined as rent (or value added) captured through consumption,barter, or sale of natural capital within the first link in a market chain, starting from the point at which the natural capital is extracted or appropriated.This study, which focuses on forest environmental income, had two main objectives. The first was to investigate the extent to which people in rural areas of developing countries depend on income from forest environmental resources, and how this dependence is conditioned by different political, economic, ecological, and sociocultural factors. This is accomplished by a meta-analysis of 54 case studies. The second objective was to review research methodology and make recommendations for "best practices" in assessment of forest environmental income.Although there are substantial variations in methodology and quality of case studies, results indicate that forest environmental income represents a significant income source with an average contribution to household income of some 22 percent in the populations sampled. The main sources of forest environmental incomes are fuelwood, wild foods, and fodder for animals. Forest environmental income has a strong and significant equalizing effect on local income distribution. Cash income constitutes about half of total forest environmental income.The report recommends the development of research protocols, field methods, and simple analytical models to analyze the role of environmental income in rural livelihoods. More in-depth studies are needed to unravel the roles of local heterogeneity and social differentiation. Extended studies that generate time series data would assist in understanding the role of environmental income in both individual household strategies and in broader development strategies. The omission of forest environmental income in national statistics and in poverty assessments leads to an underestimation of rural incomes, and a lack of appreciation of the value of environment. In areas where environmental income is important, this omission may also lead to flawed policies and interventions.
File Is the Best the Enemy of the Good? Livelihoods Perspectives on Bushmeat Harvesting and Trade - Some Issues and Challenges by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:11 AM
This paper makes a case for bushmeat as a theme of interest to development policy. Drawing on a range of secondary sources, it argues that there two are principal reasons for development assistance to address the issue of bushmeat management: its importance in the livelihood strategies of the poor, and its relevance to wider issues of public governance in forest-rich areas. However, in view of what is known about the present levels of the trade on the condition of the resource, it is judged unlikely that the trade could play a primary role in rural transformation. Considered from a livelihoods perspective, the balance sheet is much more positive than has often been assumed. These positive livelihoods dimensions have tended to be discounted in conservation strategies. Recent research is reviewed which supports the view that the poor benefit significantly from the trade. A livelihoods perspective is also indicated when considering issues of forest governance. On the one hand, the favoured instruments to improve forest governance, such as timber certification and associated codes of conduct for forest industry may not be well adapted to the realities of resource use in the humid tropics, and to the tenurial contexts in question. At the same time, there are growing indications of the principles which must be applied if bushmeat is both to be actively managed and to contribute to broader improvements in public governance.
File Land Tenure and the Adoption of Agricultural Technology in Haiti by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 24, 2013 02:25 AM
This paper presents land tenure and adoption of agricultural technology in Haiti. It also states: A) Individual and private property is the rule; B) Most peasants are simultaneously landlords and tenants; C) Farm holdings are built up over the course of a lifetime, then divided and dispersed. It highlights that 81 percent of rural households fall below the poverty line, reflecting the precipitous decline in Haitian agriculture.The paper concludes that: A) For a peasant in Haiti, the basic source of insecurity is poverty not tenure; B) Land tenure situation is largely compatible with smallholder agricultural development; C) Increasing land scarcity and population pressure have coincided with private property.
File Bridging the Divide: Rural-Urban Interactions and Livelihood Strategies by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 24, 2013 01:37 AM
Most development theory and practice is implicitly based on the dichotomy between 'rural' and 'urban' areas, populations and activities. This is reflected in the division of policies along spatial and sectoral lines, with urban planners usually concentrating on urban nodes and giving scant attention to agricultural or rural-led development, while rural development planners tend to ignore urban centres and define rural areas as consisting only of villages and their agricultural land.
File Globalized Forest Products: Commodification of Matsutake Mushroom in Tibetan Villages Yunnan Province, Southwest China by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:11 AM
Within the global framework of Sustainable Development, NTFPs (Non-timber Forest Products) draw a great deal of attentions from scholars. However, previous literature and research has mainly placed emphasis on how commercialization of NTFPs contributed to forest management and local livelihood improvement. This is absent in the debate on issues of commercialization impacts on NTFPs management and marketing. Advanced understanding of marketing process and market regulation of commons has been ignored.Taking market issues into consideration, this study attempts to explore the cross-scale institutional linkages of commercial Matsutake Mushroom management and marketing by the application of Commodity Chain Approach. The approach concentrates on identifying the multi-level institutions which guide various actors' access to either resource or market. Understandings of commodity chain is based upon an observation of people's economic networks and performance, rather than rely on single perspective of either neo-classical, cultural morality or politics. It argued, after more than two decades of market reform in China, rural economic structures continue functioning with some influences of local cultural, historical and politicalcontext, and emerging global market or globalization. Those factors not only shape the commodity chain organization, but also guide actors' access to commodity chain, eventually access to benefit. Through mapping actor's access along the commodity chain, the study provides a holistic picture of the commercialization process of the Matsutake Mushroom. The current issues and problems of commercial Matsutake management and marketing at different levels are identified.
File Technical Analyses of Environmental Issues: The Political Ecology of Poverty Alleviation in Zimbabwe's Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jun 12, 2015 04:51 AM
The Political Ecology of Poverty Alleviation in Zimbabwe's Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) By B. Ikubolajeh Logan, William G. Moseley. June 2001 The CAMPFIRE program aims to help rural communities to manage their resources, especially wildlife, for their own local development. The program's central objective is to alleviate rural poverty by giving rural communities autonomy over resource management and to demonstrate to them that wildlife is not necessarily a hindrance to arable agriculture, "but a resource that could be managed and 'cultivated' to provide income and food".In this paper we analyze the program's achievements in poverty alleviation by exploring tenurial patterns, resource ownership and the allocation of proceeds from resource exploitation; and its progress in local empowerment by examining its administrative and decision making structures. We conclude that the program cannot effectively achieve the goal of poverty alleviation without first addressing the administrative and legal structures that underlie the country's political ecology.
Partnerships for Food Industry and Development (PFID): Natural Foods by librarian2 — last modified Jan 10, 2013 08:45 AM
The Partnership for Food Industry Development/Natural Products is a USAID funded program working to create sustainable economic development for rural sub-Saharan African communities through the development of the natural plant product sector. PFID/NP has already succeeded in helping to diversify rural livelihoods in several countries, with significant impact on the economic opportunities for rural women in these countries.
File Integrated Safeguards Data Sheet: Territorial Rural Development Project by Portal Web Editor — last modified Feb 05, 2013 12:00 AM
This document provides information on the Territorial Rural Development Project in Guatemala.The objective of the project is to enhance income generation and employment in productive sectors in selected territories. To reach this objective, the project wi
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