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FRAMEgram December 2006: MCC & NRM

by Carmen Tedesco last modified May 19, 2015 04:11 PM
Contributors: FRAME

Introduction to the Millennium Challenge Corporation; NRM Indicators for the MCC; MCC & NRM Links and Resources

Author(s): FRAME

Publication Date: 2006

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        <p style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold;"><br>Dear Frame Community,</p>
        
            <p>
            The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC)
represents a new approach to foreign assistance. 
Just last month, the MCC signed funding agreements 
with <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mcc.gov%2Fcountries%2Felsalvador%2Findex.php" target="_blank">El Salvador</a> and <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mcc.gov%2Fcountries%2Fmali%2Findex.php" target="_blank">
Mali</a>, and earlier this year it adopted two new 
indicators for natural resources management. 
<p>Because the MCC approach is new to some 
members of the Natural Resource Management (NRM) 
community, this issue of the 
FRAMEgram includes a short introduction to the MCC 
and the new NRM indicators.
            </p>
        
            <p>
            <font color="#000000" face="Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif" size="2" style="font-family:Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;font-size:10pt;font-style:normal;font-weight:normal;color:#000000;"><b>Visit the Open Forum:</b> A new forum on 
the FRAME Website at <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D19568_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank">
www.frameweb.org/mcc</a> is open for your 
responses. Responses from the field to the new 
indicators are already posted.</font>            </p>
        
    
    

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        <font color="#000000" face="Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif" size="2" style="FONT-FAMILY: Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;FONT-SIZE: 10pt;COLOR: #000000;">
        
        <li style="MARGIN-LEFT: 12pt;TEXT-INDENT: -12pt;">
            <a color="#336799" href="#column" shape="rect" style="COLOR: #336799;TEXT-DECORATION: none;">Free Access to Scientific Journal Articles</a>
        </li>
        
        
        <li style="MARGIN-LEFT: 12pt;TEXT-INDENT: -12pt;">
            <a color="#336799" href="#article1" shape="rect" style="COLOR: #336799;TEXT-DECORATION: none;">Introduction to the Millennium Challenge Corporation</a>
        </li>
        
        
        <li style="MARGIN-LEFT: 12pt;TEXT-INDENT: -12pt;">
            <a color="#336799" href="#article2" shape="rect" style="COLOR: #336799;TEXT-DECORATION: none;">NRM Indicators for the MCC</a>
        </li>
        
        
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            <a color="#336799" href="#article3" shape="rect" style="COLOR: #336799;TEXT-DECORATION: none;">MCC & NRM Links and Resources</a>
        </li>
        
        
        
        <li style="MARGIN-LEFT: 12pt;TEXT-INDENT: -12pt;">
            <a color="#336799" href="#article4" shape="rect" style="COLOR: #336799;TEXT-DECORATION: none;">FRAME Update</a>
        </li>
        
        
        
        <li style="MARGIN-LEFT: 12pt;TEXT-INDENT: -12pt;">
            <a color="#336799" href="#article5" shape="rect" style="COLOR: #336799;TEXT-DECORATION: none;">Events and Opportunities</a>
        </li>
        
        
        
        <li style="MARGIN-LEFT: 12pt;TEXT-INDENT: -12pt;">
            <a color="#336799" href="#article6" shape="rect" style="COLOR: #336799;TEXT-DECORATION: none;">New publications on the FRAME Website</a>
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        <td bgcolor="#336799" colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="BACKGROUND-COLOR: #336799;TEXT-ALIGN: left;PADDING-LEFT: 3px;" valign="top"><font color="#336699" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif" size="2" style="FONT-FAMILY: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;FONT-SIZE: 10pt;FONT-WEIGHT: bold;COLOR: #336699;"><font color="#FFFFFF" face="Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif" size="2" style="font-family:Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;font-size:10pt;font-style:normal;font-weight:bold;color:#FFFFFF;">Introduction to the Millennium Challenge Corporation</font></font></td>
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        <font color="#000000" face="Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif" size="2" style="FONT-FAMILY: Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;FONT-SIZE: 10pt;COLOR: #000000;">
        
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        <p>
        <font color="#000000" face="Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif" size="2" style="font-family:Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;font-size:10pt;font-style:normal;font-weight:normal;color:#000000;"><br>Established by the United States Congress in 
January 
2004, the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) is 
a government-owned entity set up to manage the 
Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) and provide aid 
to developing nations. While there are <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cgdev.org%2Fsection%2Finitiatives%2F_active%2Fmcamonitor%2Fabout_mca%23HM" target="_blank">several 
differences</a> between the MCC 
approach and other United States aid programs, an 
important one is that the 
MCC only distributes funds to selected countries 
through either �compact� or �threshold" agreements.</font>
        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>Compacts and Thresholds</b><br>
A Compact is a multi-year agreement to fund specific 
programs to reduce poverty and stimulate 
economic growth. Short of signing a Compact, 
countries, at the 
discretion of the MCC Board of Directors, may sign a 
threshold agreement and receive financial assistance 
to become eligible for a Compact. 
Currently <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mcc.gov%2Fcountries%2Findex.php" target="_blank">
eleven and seventeen countries</a> have signed 
compact and 
threshold agreements, respectively.        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>From Candidate to Compact: The Selection 
Process</b><br>
The road to a compact agreement starts at being 
a �candidate country�. Candidate countries have low 
annual per-capita income levels and are not subject 
to any U.S. or international sanctions. To become 
eligible for MCC support, candidate 
countries are measured against eachother using a 
<a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mcc.gov%2Fselection%2Findicators%2Findex.php" target="_blank">set of 16 indicators</a>, which includes, for 
example, civil liberties, immunization rate, and fiscal 
policy indicators. 
(Visit the MCC Website for <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mcc.gov%2Fcountries%2Findex.php" target="_blank">2007
 Country Scorecards</a>.)        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>Signing a Compact</b><br>The final decision on 
eligibility is made each year by 
the MCC Board, taking into consideration the 
indicator results�a country must be above the 
median score on half of the indicators in each of 
three categories, any supplemental information, and 
an assessment whether or not a Compact would lead 
to poverty reduction through economic growth. Once 
considered "eligible," a country develops an 
actual �compact proposal� to describe the specific 
programs it would like to have funded. The MCC 
works with the country to finalize the proposal and 
once it is approved by 
the Board, a multi-year compact agreement is signed.
        </p>
        

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        <font color="#000000" face="Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif" size="2" style="FONT-FAMILY: Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;FONT-SIZE: 10pt;COLOR: #000000;">
        
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        <p>
        <font color="#000000" face="Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif" size="2" style="font-family:Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;font-size:10pt;font-style:normal;font-weight:normal;color:#000000;"><br>The current set of <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mcc.gov%2Fselection%2Findicators%2Findex.php" target="_blank">16 MCC indicators</a>, which is used to 
determine 
eligibility for funding, covers a range of issues, 
but does not include a specific measure of a 
country�s 
performance related to sustainable natural resource 
management. In early 2005, the MCC launched a 
public campaign to come up with 
indicators that would do just that. As a result of this 
process, a "Land Rights and Access Index" and 
a "Natural Resource Management Index" were 
recently added as new indicators.
<p>
In 2007, these indicators will not yet be part of 
the official scorecard, but will be used by the MCC 
Board as "supplemental information" in the 
decision-making process to determine eligibility. For 
2008 and 
beyond, however, both are set to become formal 
indicators.</p></font>
        
        
        <p>
        <b>Land Rights and Access Index</b><br>
The Land Rights and Access Index combines two 
International Finance Corporation (IFC) indicators for 
the time and 
costs involved for registering property with an 
indicator from the International Fund for 
Agricultural Development (IFAD) to assess the extent 
to which the institutional, legal and market 
framework provides secure land tenure and equitable 
access to land in rural areas.<p>
<b>Natural Resource Management Index</b><br>
The <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fsedac.ciesin.columbia.edu%2Fes%2Fmcc.html" target="_blank">
Natural Resource Management index</a>, developed 
and managed by Columbia and Yale 
Universities, is calculated as the average of four 
separate measures: Eco-region protection; access 
to water from an improved source; access to 
sanitation; 
and child mortality between the ages of 1 and 4. For 
each, the index uses existing data from organizations 
like UNICEF and the World Health Organization. Data 
for this index for 
select countries is posted on the CIESIN Website in 
an <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fsedac.ciesin.columbia.edu%2Fes%2Fmcc.html%23data" target="_blank">
Excel document</a>.
        </p>
        
        <p>
        More information on both indicators is available from 
the <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mcc.gov%2Fselection%2Freports%2FFY07_Criteria_Methodology.pdf" target="_blank">2007 Criteria and 
Methodology Report</a> and the <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mcc.gov%2Fselection%2Findicators%2Fnaturalresourcessearch.php" target="_blank">NRM indicator search</a> 
page, both on the MCC Website. A publication by the 
Center for Global Development, <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cgdev.org%2Fdoc%2FMCA%2FMCCnatural_resource.pdf" target="_blank">Adding Natural Resource Indicators</a>, 
provides a critical commentary.        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>NRM Community responses to the new 
indicators</b><br> While the new NRM indicators are 
the 
result of a public consultation process, no indicator is 
ever perfect. To capture responses in the NRM 
community to these new indicators, FRAME has 
openened an online MCC & NRM Open Forum. 
Responses are already posted and we welcome your 
contributions. Visit: 
<a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fmcc" target="_blank">
www.frameweb.org/mcc</a> to join the forum.        </p>
        
        <div style="TEXT-ALIGN: right;">
        <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D19568_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank" style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold;COLOR: #336799;" shape="rect" color="#336799">MCC & NRM Open Forum and Resources</a>        </div>
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        <p>
        <br><b>Millennium Challenge Corporation.</b> 
The official MCC website includes selection criteria, 
indicators, and a list of compact and threshold 
countries. You can also sign up for a monthly 
electronic newsletter. <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mcc.gov" target="_blank">www.mcc.gov</a>.        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>CIESIN/Yale NRM Index Website.</b> This 
Website of the Center for 
International Earth Science Information Network 
(CIESIN) at Columbia University describes methods 
and calculations behind the NRM index and includes 
country data. An <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fsedac.ciesin.columbia.edu%2FMCC_NRMI%2Fviewer.htm" target="_blank">interactive mapping tool</a> visualizes 
the distribution of biomes and protected areas 
worldwide. <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fsedac.ciesin.columbia.edu%2Fes%2Fmcc.html" target="_blank">
NRM index Website</a>.        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>Center for Global Development MCA Monitor.</b> 
Website tracking the Millennium Challenge Account. 
Includes a summary of MCA funding levels and 
additional resources. <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cgdev.org%2Fsection%2Finitiatives%2F_active%2Fmcamonitor%2F" target="_blank">MCA Monitor</a>.        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>MCC & NRM Open Forum on FRAME.</b> Open 
discussion forum to share responses to the NRM 
indicators. <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D19568_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank">
www.frameweb.org/mcc</a>.        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>Adding Natural Resource Indicators: An 
Opportunity 
to Strengthen the MCA Eligibility Process.</b> Center 
for Global Development paper on the selection and 
incorporation of two NRM indicators. <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cgdev.org%2Fdoc%2FMCA%2FMCCnatural_resource.pdf" target="_blank">Adding Natural Resource Indicators</a>.        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>MCC Environmental Guidelines.</b> Guidelines for 
ensuring that projects as part of MCC-funded 
programs are environmentally sound and "not 
likely to cause a significant environmental, health, or 
safety hazard." <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mcc.gov%2Fcountries%2Ftools%2F2006%2Feligible%2Fenglish%2F03e-english-environmental_guidelines.pdf" target="_blank">
MCC Environmental Guidelines</a>.        </p>
        

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        <p>
        <br><b>Launch of Mali case studies.</b> A national 
workshop in Bamako, Mali on November 13 signaled 
the start of a set of nationwide case studies to 
document the impacts of investments in natural 
resources management over the past 30 years. The 
studies will specifically look at impacts on 
desertification, poverty reduction, and local 
governance. The workshop, organized by CILSS in 
collaboration with partners�USAID/FRAME, GTZ, 
Free University of Amsterdam, and the Swiss 
Development Cooperation�was held under the 
auspices of the 
Malian Ministry of Environment. <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_fr.php%3FID%3D19167_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank">Rapport de l'atelier 
</a> 
(French only).        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>BBC Desertification Series: Episode on Niger.</b> 
The December 15 episode of the BBC documentary, 
Villages on the Front 
Line, will focus on Niger. The series explores how 
populations develop ways to "defeat the encroaching 
desert" and improve their 
livelihoods. Read more <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D18824_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank">details on the 
series</a> or download the <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D17529_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank">recent FRAME 
report</a> on related successes in the region.        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>Environmental Trends Analysis Community.</b> A new <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D17205_201%26ID2%3DDO_COMMUNITY" target="_blank">ETA 
community on FRAME</a> shares information and 
resources for measuring impacts on the environment 
and natural resources, including statistical, 
simulation, and spatial modeling tools. <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D17205_201%26ID2%3DDO_COMMUNITY" target="_blank">
www.frameweb.org/eta</a>.        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>Natural Products Updates & Audio 
Presentations.</b> Presentations on biodiversity, 
livelihoods, social capital and value chains are now 
posted on the <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D18034_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank">interactive 
proceedings page</a> of the Natural Products 
workshop. Meanwhile, the <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D10493_201%26ID2%3DDO_COMMUNITY" target="_blank">NP 
community</a> features natural products related 
tools and weekly community updates.        </p>
        
        <div style="TEXT-ALIGN: right;">
        <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D18472_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank" style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold;COLOR: #336799;" shape="rect" color="#336799">Learn more about FRAME</a>        </div>
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        <p>
        <br><b>World Bank Summer Internship Program.</b> 
Internship program for students currently enrolled in 
a full-time graduate study program for a Master�s 
degree or PhD. Application period currently 
ongoing. <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D19208_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank">Details on 
FRAMEweb</a>.        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>Course: Toolbox for Effective Environmental 
Regulation & Protection.</b> April 16 � May 4, 2007. 
Short course providing both theoretical 
background and 'hands on' understanding of available 
tools, techniques, procedures and policy models. 
Targeted at practitioners and policy makers in 
Governments and NGOs. <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D18416_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank">Details on 
FRAMEweb</a>.        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>Funding Opportunity: Borlaug LEAP awards 
for agriculture students in sub-Saharan Africa.</b> 
Awards of 
up to $20,000 for outstanding MS or PhD students 
(enrolled in either U.S. or home country universities) 
from USAID-assisted countries in sub-Saharan Africa. 
<a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D18570_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank">Details on 
FRAMEweb</a>.        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>Job Opportunities at the Centre for 
Interdisciplinary Studies in 
Environment and 
Development (CISED).</b> The Centre is recruiting 
core faculty and visiting fellows. 
<a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D18554_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank">Details on 
FRAMEweb</a>.        </p>
        
        <div style="TEXT-ALIGN: right;">
        <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D1016_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank" style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold;COLOR: #336799;" shape="rect" color="#336799">More events, call for papers, jobs and funding opportunities on FRAMEweb</a>        </div>
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        <td bgcolor="#002A6C" colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="BACKGROUND-COLOR: #002A6C;" valign="top"><img height="1" src="http://img.constantcontact.com/letters/images/spacer.gif" width="1"/></td>
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        <p>
        <br>Every month, new 
documents and links are posted in the NRM library on 
FRAME. Some recent additions:
        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>Designing a Communications Strategy: The 4-P 
Workshop.</b> 2006. Paper by Conservation 
International 
describing how to organize and facilitate a two-day 
workshop to develop a conservation awareness 
strategy anywhere in the world. <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D18424_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank">Details on 
FRAMEweb</a>.        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>Environmental Strategies to Increase Human 
Resilience to Climate Change: Lessons for Eastern 
and Northern Africa. </b>2006 Exploration of three 
environmental strategies used by different 
communities to mitigate problems caused by climate 
change. <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D18544_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank">Details on 
FRAMEweb</a>.        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>Sharing the Fruit of Forestry Products: 
Indigenous 
People and Their Incomes in the Forestry Sector in 
East Kalimantan, Indonesia.</b> 2005. Study of the 
impact of economic development in 
forestry on the indigenous people who rely on 
the forest for their livelihoods. <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D18513_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank"> Details on 
FRAMEweb</a>.        </p>
        
        <p>
        <b>Recentralizing while Decentralizing: How National 
Governments Reappropriate Forest Resources.</b> 
Paper addressing the question why decentralization 
initiatives rarely lay the foundations necessary to 
reach the process' purported efficiency and equity 
benefits. The paper compares Senegal, Uganda, 
Nepal, Indonesia, Bolivia, and Nicaragua. <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev.php%3FID%3D18409_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank">Details on 
FRAMEweb</a>.        </p>
        
        <div style="TEXT-ALIGN: right;">
        <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org%2Fev_en.php%3FID%3D14346_201%26ID2%3DDO_TOPIC" target="_blank" style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold;COLOR: #336799;" shape="rect" color="#336799">More resources (by topic or country) posted in the FRAME library</a>        </div>
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                <font color="#000000" face="Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif" size="1" style="font-family:Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;font-size:8pt;font-style:normal;font-weight:normal;color:#000000;"><b>About this newsletter: </b>The FRAMEgram is a 
monthly newsletter with news and resources for the 
global Natural Resource 
Management (NRM) community. It is connected to 
FRAMEweb, a network website designed to 
facilitate knowledge sharing among NRM professionals 
through online discussions and the sharing of 
documents and other resources. The next 
FRAMEgram will focus on <b>linkages 
between HIV/AIDS and NRM</b>. Please send us 
your news, event announcements, or suggestions for 
future topics to: <a href="mailto:framemail@irgltd.com">
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        email:
        <a color="#336799" href="mailto:framemail@irgltd.com" shape="rect" style="COLOR: #336799;">framemail@irgltd.com</a>
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        phone:
        +1-202-289-0100
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        web:
        <a href="http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=z7jkk9bab.0.0.x7zdopbab.0&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frameweb.org" target="_blank" style="COLOR: #336799;" shape="rect" color="#336799">http://www.frameweb.org</a>    </div>
    
    


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<table bgcolor="#ffffff" padding="0" width="100%"><tr align="center"><td><table bgcolor="#ffffff" width="595"><tr><td><font face="verdana,arial" size="1"><b><a href="http://ui.constantcontact.com/sa/fwtf.jsp?m=1101103490967&ea=avanderheijden%40irgltd.com&a=1101468608409&id=preview" style="color: #0000ff;" target="_blank">Forward email</a></b></font><br/>
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<tr><td><font face="verdana,arial" size="1"><br/>FRAME | A USAID program administered by IRG | 1211 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 700 | Washington | DC | 20036</font>
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