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GHSP Journal, Volume 3, Issue 2 – Sharing Experiences and Results from the Global Health Community

by Portal Web Editor last modified Jun 22, 2015 12:15 AM
Contributors: USAID GHSP
Global Health: Science and Practice (GHSP), a no-fee, peer-reviewed, open-access journal, is targeted to global health professionals, particularly program implementers, to validate their experiences and program results by peer reviewers and to share them with the greater global health community.

Read the June 2015 issue of GHSP to find answers to these questions and more. View a list of all articles by article type below, or read and download the entire current issue.

Visit the GHSP website to read and comment on the articles, and subscribe to receive alerts when new articles and issues are published.

EDITORIALS

Social Franchising: A Blockbuster to Address Unmet Need for Family Planning and to Advance Toward the FP2020 Goal

Social franchising has scaled up provision of voluntary family planning, especially long-acting reversible contraceptives, across Africa and Asia at a rapid and remarkable pace. The approach should be pursued vigorously, especially in countries with a significant private-sector presence, to advance the FP2020 goal of providing access to modern contraception to 120 million additional clients by 2020.

Global Health: Science and Practice

Benefits of Advance Oxytocin Preparation Could Extend to the Newborn

Advance preparation of oxytocin not only facilitates rapid administration after delivery to prevent postpartum hemorrhage but also could free health workers to provide immediate neonatal resuscitation to non-breathing newborns within the critical 1-minute time window.

Global Health: Science and Practice

COMMENTARIES

Leveraging the Power of Knowledge Management to Transform Global Health and Development

Good knowledge is essential to prevent disease and improve health. Knowledge management (KM) provides a systematic process and tools to promote access to and use of knowledge among health and development practitioners to improve health and development outcomes. KM tools range from publications and resources (briefs, articles, job aids) and products and services (websites, eLearning courses, mobile applications) to training and events (workshops, webinars, meetings) and approaches and techniques (peer assists, coaching, after-action reviews, knowledge cafés).

Tara M Sullivan, Rupali J Limaye, Vanessa Mitchell, Margaret D'Adamo, Zachary Baquet

Family Planning Policy Environment in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Levers of Positive Change and Prospects for Sustainability

Building on expressed support from the Prime Minister to the Ministries of Health and Planning, the country's new family planning commitment grew out of: (1) recognition of the impact of family planning on maternal mortality and economic development; (2) knowledge sharing of best practices from other African countries; (3) participatory development of a national strategic plan; (4) strong collaboration between stakeholders; (5) effective advocacy by champions including country and international experts; and (6) increased donor support. The question becomes, will the favorable policy environment translate into effective local programming?

Thibaut Mukaba, Arsene Binanga, Sarah Fohl, Jane T Bertrand

How Can We Better Evaluate Complex Global Health Initiatives? Reflections from the January 2014 Institute of Medicine Workshop

An Institute of Medicine workshop on evaluation design drew on recent evaluations of four complex initiatives (U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief; the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria; the President's Malaria Initiative; and the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria). Key components for good evaluations: (1) a robust theory of change to understand how and why programs should work; (2) use of multiple analytic methods; and (3) triangulation of evidence to validate and deepen understanding of results as well as synthesis of findings to identify lessons for scale-up or broader application.

Sangeeta Mookherji, Kate Meck

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

Establishing and Scaling Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned from Marie Stopes International and Population Services International

Family-planning social franchising has succeeded in countries with an active private sector serving low- and middle-income clients, with services provided mostly by mid-level providers, such as nurses and midwives. Key support for social franchising includes: clinical training and supportive supervision, help building sustainable businesses, marketing and demand creation, and mechanisms to make services affordable for clients. The forward agenda includes selectively introducing other priority health services, improving cost-effectiveness of the model, and promoting sustainability and health systems integration.

Sarah Thurston, Nirali M Chakraborty, Brendan Hayes, Anna Mackay, Pierre Moon

Private-Sector Social Franchising to Accelerate Family Planning Access, Choice, and Quality: Results From Marie Stopes International

In just 7 years, Marie Stopes International has scaled up social franchising across Africa and Asia, from 7 countries to 17, cumulatively reaching an estimated 3.75 million clients, including young adults and the poor. In 2014, 68 percent of clients chose long-acting reversible contraceptives, and many clients had not been using modern contraception in the last 3 months. Service quality and efficiency (couple-years of protection delivered per outlet) also improved significantly.

Erik Munroe, Brendan Hayes, Julia Taft

Toward a Systematic Approach to Generating Demand for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Insights and Results from Field Studies

Using an analytical framework to design and implement voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs can lead to more effective interventions, especially when insights are incorporated from disciplines such as behavioral science and commercial market research. Promising VMMC behavior change practices: (1) address individual, interpersonal, and environmental barriers and facilitators; (2) tailor messages to men's behavior change stage and focus on other benefits besides HIV prevention, such as hygiene and sexual pleasure; (3) include women as a key target audience; (4) engage traditional and religious leaders; (5) use media to promote positive social norms; and (6) deploy community mobilizers to address individual concerns.

Sema K Sgaier, James Baer, Daniel C Rutz, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli, Kim Seifert-Ahanda, Paulin Basinga, Rosie Parkyn, Catharine Laube

Appropriate Management of Acute Diarrhea in Children among Public and Private Providers in Gujarat, India: A Cross-Sectional Survey

Training public-sector providers to treat diarrhea in children with low-osmolarity oral rehydration salts and zinc appeared to be effective. Among private providers, drug-detailing visits by pharmaceutical representatives seemed less effective, particularly in improving knowledge of the correct dosage and duration of zinc treatment. Consistent supplies and sufficient attention to training all health care cadres, especially community health workers who may be new to diarrhea treatment and informal-sector providers who are typically excluded from formal training, are critical to improving knowledge and prescribing behaviors.

Christa L Fischer Walker, Sunita Taneja, Amnesty LeFevre, Robert E Black, Sarmila Mazumder

Motivations and Constraints to Family Planning: A Qualitative Study in Rwanda's Southern Kayonza District

Community members and health workers recognized the value of spacing and limiting births, but a variety of traditional and gender norms constrain their use of contraception. Limited method choice, persistent side effects, transportation fees, stock-outs, long wait times, and hidden service costs also inhibit contraceptive use.

Didi Bertrand Farmer, Leslie Berman, Grace Ryan, Lameck Habumugisha, Paulin Basinga, Cameron Nutt, Francois Kamali, Elias Ngizwenayo, Jacklin St Fleur, Peter Niyigena, Fidele Ngabo, Paul E Farmer, Michael L Rich

Predictors of Essential Health and Nutrition Service Delivery in Bihar, India: Results from Household and Frontline Worker Surveys

Only about 35 percent of sample households reported receiving immunization, food supplements, pregnancy care information, or nutrition information. Monetary incentives for such product-oriented services as immunization improved performance and may have spillover effects for information-oriented services. Immunization day events and good frontline worker recordkeeping also improved service delivery.

Katrina Kosec, Rasmi Avula, Brian Holtemeyer, Parul Tyagi, Stephanie Hausladen, Purnima Menon

PEPFAR Transitions to Country Ownership: Review of Past Donor Transitions and Application of Lessons Learned to the Eastern Caribbean

Six key steps for effective transition: (1) develop a roadmap; (2) involve stakeholders; (3) communicate the plan; (4) support midterm evaluations; (5) strengthen financial, technical, and management capacity; and (6) support ongoing monitoring and evaluation. The Eastern Caribbean will need to identify HIV champions, strengthen leadership and management, improve policies to protect key populations, engage the private sector and civil society more, integrate HIV programs into primary care, improve supply chain capacity, and address health worker shortages.

Abigail Vogus, Kylie Graff

REVIEWS/META-ANALYSES

Action-Oriented Population Nutrition Research: High Demand but Limited Supply

Action-oriented research in nutrition, vital to guiding effective policies and programs at scale, is greatly underrepresented in public health journals and, even more so, in nutrition journals.

Judy Pham, David Pelletier

FIELD ACTION REPORTS

Bedside Availability of Prepared Oxytocin and Rapid Administration after Delivery to Prevent Postpartum Hemorrhage: An Observational Study in Karnataka, India

Advance preparation and bedside availability of oxytocin before childbirth was significantly and robustly associated with rapid administration of the utertonic, as recommended to prevent postpartum hemorrhage.

Corrina Moucheraud, Jonathon Gass, Stuart Lipsitz, Jonathan Spector, Priya Agrawal, Lisa R Hirschhorn, Atul Gawande, Bhala Kodkany

Successful mLearning Pilot in Senegal: Delivering Family Planning Refresher Training Using Interactive Voice Response and SMS

Health workers' knowledge of contraceptive side effects increased substantially after the refresher training. The mobile phone approach was convenient and flexible and did not disrupt routine service delivery. Clear limitations of the medium are participants can't practice clinical skills or have interactive discussions. Also, some participants had trouble with network reception.

Abdoulaye Diedhiou, Kate E Gilroy, Carie Muntifering Cox, Luke Duncan, Djimadoum Koumtingue, Sara Pacqué-Margolis, Alfredo Fort, Dykki Settle, Rebecca Bailey

GHSP is supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development and published by the Knowledge for Health project at the Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs.

Learn more about GHSP on its website: www.ghspjournal.org.

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